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What is Philosophy?
- Literally, "loving knowledge/wisdom"
- Investigation of truths & principles of knowledge, conduct and being.
"An unusually stubborn attempt to think clearly about the basic issues of life."
What is Metaphysics?
What is Epistemology?
How we can do. How we know.
What is Ontology?
The nature of ultimate reality
What is Aixology?
What is Ethics?
What is Aesthetics?
What is Anthropology?
What is Politics?
What is Logic/ Reason?
- "The unexplained life is not worth living."
- Socratic method: dialectic, struggle for truth through dialogue
Atheist who believes in God.
Apology, Crito & Phaedo [ the hemlock ]
" Everything in philosophy since Plato is merely a footnote to Plato"
- Alfred Norh Whitehead.
- Taught "eternal ideas".
- Forms, Universials, the Logos; the Allegory of the cave [ shadows= matter, nature]
a "World Soul" [ Universal Force ] or Demiurge [ intermediary creator ]
The Doctrine of Reminiscence; philosopher kings.
- Agreed with Plato. No particulars without forms, but Universals, Forms, etc.
- Not the only reality; study of particulars [ science ] is dialectic opportunity to know Forms, Universals;
- Shadows have significance.
Aristotle's Thinking Tool.
- Three Laws; Identity A = A;
- Contradiction A cannot be A and Not A
- Excluded middle: Everything is either A or not A.
verbal devices that so organizes two propositions that a third, a conclusion, follows necessarily
Premise and Proposition
statement or proposition which supports a conclusion: Major & Minor Premise
A statement which is either true or false
logical of premises and propositions
the science of correct/ valid reasoning; conclusions from facts, ideas, evidence
Reason [ rationality] :
To think correctly; sound judgement
A valid relationship/connection between evidence/premise & conclusion
A fallacy; fallacious reasoning
Were first to formally investigate & establish standard reasoning
Deliberately shifted from valid arguments to subtle. "tricky" & insincere arguments; "sophistry"
Early Renaissance [ Aristotelian Revival ]
Gave Latin names to types of fallacious reasoning
Is language an innate gift of the Creator for his special creation?
Is the propostiion or statement true or false; fact or opinion: need to seek verification
Allows propositions to be presented logically
words or inferred/implied words indicate the direction of the argument
Indicate a reason:
For, since, because, etc
Indicate a conclusion
so, therefore, thus etc
unsaid, the logical conclusion of a rational mind.
Are the facts,evidence, true; verifiable?
Is the reasoning process sound [ valid ]?
Starts with Major Premise, "truth"; if a valid connection the conclusion follows necessarily
Starts with gathering evidence; if convincing & logical connection it is probably true
Most knowledge is "probable"
Francis Bacon [ 1600 ]
We over-rely on deductive; need more inductive [ scientific research ]
"count the teeth"
Number of senses & meanings & sound a like
Controlled by conventional usage [ its technical meaning ] & through its context [ verbal environment ]
Occurs when doubt is in context
Sometimes intended for humorous effect, a pun, or to deliberately mislead, equivocation
Maybe caused by grammar
3 Problems of Ambiguity
Unintended Humor; Question Regarding the Meaning; Mistaken Meaning
When the meaning of a word is deliberately changed in the course of an argument or discussion with deceptive purpose
"I did not have sex with that woman."
Statement is not clear; caused by indefiniteness [ "Some guy said you need to call him"];
Undefined Degree [ "She's a pretty good musician" ]
Obscurity- was not clear what was said
Can be used by euphemism, a term that lessens negative impact
Mumbling- unclear speech
deliberately and complicated language
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