IS 352 Test 1

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kcooper
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71508
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IS 352 Test 1
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2011-03-08 14:36:51
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chemical bond matter mass weight periodic table
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TAMU-Commerce IS 352 Test 1
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  1. What are the 9 processes of Science?
    • 1. Observing
    • 2. Measuring
    • 3. Classifying
    • 4. Inferring
    • 5. Predicting
    • 6. Experimenting
    • 7. Hypothesizing
    • 8. Explaining
    • 9. Communicating
  2. Observing Activity
    The candle was described qualitatively and quantitatively before it was lit, during burning and after burning.
  3. Measuring Activity
    Ice cubes were placed in a beaker. Observations were made and recorded. The height of the water in the beaker was measured before melting and after melting. The height did not change because the ice displaced the water and when it melted it filled the space up.
  4. Classifying Activity
    Buttons and "wild things" were classified as a binary classification system and a multi-stage classification system.
  5. Inferring Activity
    Why does moisture collect on a beaker of ice water? Because room temperature is warmer than the ice water and causes condensation. The condensation comes from the moisture in the air. We can show that the moisture does not come from inside the glass by adding food coloring to the water.
  6. Hypothesizing Activity
    The warmer water dissolved the Alka-Seltzer tablet faster than cooler water. The manipulated variable was the water temp., the responding variable was the time it took for the tablet to dissolve, and the control variables were the size of the tablet, the brand of the tablet, the water, the plastic cups, and the amount of water.
  7. Predicting Activity
    What's in a bag of M&M's? Predict the number of M&M's in a bag, the number of each color, and the most and least common colors. Compare data with the rest of the class groups and chart the data. On average there were more orange M&M's and the least amount were the red M&M's.
  8. Communicating Activity
    Tanagrams - one group member secretly made a design and tried to guide the other group members only with words on how to create the design. Not easy.
  9. Matter
    The stuff that everything is made of, or anything that has mass and volume
  10. Mass
    The amount of matter in an object, expressed in grams
  11. Weight
    The measure of the force exerted on an object by the pull of the Earth's gravity, expressed in Newtons
  12. Volume
    the amount of space taken up by an object, defined by l x w x h, or mL
  13. Pure Substances
    constant composition with a specific set of properties
  14. Elements
    basic building blocks of matter
  15. Compound
    2 or more elements
  16. Mixtures
    2 or more pure substances where each substance will keep its own identity, does not form a new substance. i.e. sweet tea
  17. Difference between physical and chemical properties and change:
    • Physical Properties - characteristics of an object that can be observed or measured, can be changed without changing the object itself
    • Chemical Properties - chemical changes the ability of matter to change into a new substance that has different properties. i.e. sterling silver -> (oxidation) -> black color (petina)
  18. 4 Signs that can tell you a Chemical Change has taken place:
    • 1. gas is produced - fizzing
    • 2. color change - rust
    • 3. temperature change
    • 4. produces light
  19. Difference between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures:
    • Homogeneous mixture - well mixed, appears to be uniform but proportions can vary. i.e. sugar in a glass of tea
    • Heterogeneous mixture - not uniform, unevenly mixed
  20. 3 Phases of Matter and difference in physical properties of each:
    • Liquid - definite volume and indefinite shape
    • Solid - definite volume and definite shape
    • Gas - indefinite volume and indefinite shape
  21. Burning a Candle Activity
    The wick and wax work together as a system. The wax is the fuel and the wick transports the fuel to the flame. Without oxygen the flame cannot burn.
  22. The Distinguishing Properties of Common White Powders
    Each substance (granulate sugar, table salt, baking soda & cornstarch) behave differently when mixed with the various substances (water, iodine & vinegar). The biggest reaction came from mixing iodine with cornstarch. The cornstarch hardened and turned black. the other came when mixing vinegar and baking soda, which produces a gas evident from fizzing. Both of these are chemical reactions.
  23. What are the properties of Oobleck?
    Liquid or Solid? It doesn't have a definite shape, so it can't be a solid. It has a definite volume and no definite shape so it fits the definition of a liquid.
  24. Changes of State of Water - 6 changes
    • + Heat NRG
    • Solid -> Liquid = Melting
    • Liquid -> Gas = Evaporation
    • Solid -> Gas = Sublimation
    • - Heat NRG
    • Gas -> Liquid = Condensation
    • Liquid -> Solid = Freezing
    • Gas -> Solid = Deposition
  25. Latent Heat
    The energy absorbed or released during a change of state.
  26. Calories
    the amount of heat it take to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius
  27. Dew point temperature
    the temperature at which the air must be cooled in order for condensation to occur
  28. Condensation
    change of state from a gas to a liquid with a loss of heat energy
  29. Humidity
    description of the amount of water vapor in the air
  30. Saturation
    the maximum possible amount of water vapor the air can hold at a given temperature and pressure
  31. Meniscus
    in a graduated cylinder the meniscus is read at the bottom of the curve
  32. What is condensation and how does it occur?
    Condensation is a change of state when a gas turns into a liquid with a loss of heat energy. The ice cools the sides of the cup which cools the warmer air that contains the water vapor very close to the outside of the cup. Water vapor gathers on the outside of the cup as condensation.
  33. What is the temperature at which condensation takes place?
    Condensation first started showing on the cup at 5 degrees Celsius, when the temperature had dropped 19 degrees.
  34. 3 Subatomic Particles
    • Proton - inside nucleus, + charge, atomic #, identification of element depends on the number of protons
    • Electron - outside nucleus, - charge, # always = # protons, influence chemical reaction
    • Neutron - inside nucleus, no charge
  35. Atomic Number
    the order of an element in Mendeleyev's table of the elements; equal to the number of protons in the nucleus
  36. Atomic Mass Number (Atomic Weight)
    Protons + Neutron = Atomic Mass
  37. Molecule
    2 or more atoms are combined, smallest unit of a compound
  38. Organization of the Periodic Table - Names of Groups
    • Rows: periods, there are 7
    • Columns: family - there are 18, they react in the same way
    • Group 1: Alkali Metal - very reactive, hardly find in nature
    • Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
    • Group 3 - 12: Transition Elements
    • Group 13 - 16: BCNO
    • Group 17: Halogens - non-metals, 5 elements, combine with alkali metals for form salts
    • Group 18: Noble Gases - found in Earth's atmosphere, colorless and odorless
    • Red Symbols: Gases
    • Solid Black Symbols: Solids
    • Blue Symbols: liquids at room temperature
    • Outlined: Synthetic
  39. Difference between a metal, nonmetal and metalloid:
    • Metal (left hand side):
    • Silver gray in color
    • Malleable
    • Shiny metallic luster
    • Can be magnetic
    • Good conductors of heat and electricity
    • High densities
    • Non-Metals (right hand side):
    • Not shiny
    • Transparent
    • Brittle - will shatter
    • Not magnetic
    • Not conductors of heat or electricity
    • Low density
    • Some gases at room temp., some liquids & some solids
    • Metalloid (semi-conductors in red outline):
    • Solids
    • Dull or shiny
    • Malleable or brittle
    • Density varies
    • Conduct heat and electricity better than non-metals but not as good as metals
    • Has properties of metal and non-metals
  40. Which 2 elements are liquids at room temperature?
    Bromine and mercury
  41. Chemical bond
    an attractive force that holds atoms together in a compound
  42. Spheres of Hydration
    The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion.
  43. Cohesion
    attraction of like molecules
  44. Adhesion
    attraction of dissimilar molecules
  45. Chemical Reaction
    a change in matter in which different chemical substances are created by breaking or forming chemical bonds
  46. Hydrophilic
    Water-loving, readily bonds with water
  47. Hydrophobic
    does not like water, i.e. oil
  48. Endothermic
    chemical reaction occurring or formed with absorption of heat
  49. Exothermic
    chemical reaction occurring or formed with the release of heat
  50. 4 Types of Chemical Bonds
    • Covalent - formed by sharing a pair of electrons, generally, non-metallic elements
    • Polar - unequal sharing
    • Non-polar - atoms share electrons equally
    • Ionic - atoms transfer electrons, in general a metal reacts with 1 or more nonmetals
    • Metallic - formed between 2 or more metals, give electrical conductivity
    • Hydrogen - atoms share electrons in a water molecule
  51. Unusual Properties of Water
    • 1. The only substance found naturally on Earth in all 3 states
    • 2. Temperature scales all based on water
    • 3. Universal solvent
    • 4. Density
    • 5. Cohesion
    • 6. Polarity of water - water attracts other polar molecules like sugar which is hydrophilic
  52. Balance Chemical Equations
    Practice
  53. Law of Conservation of Mass
    Matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction
  54. Oxidation-Reduction Reaction - Redox
    An oxidizing chemical change where an element's electron loss is accompanied by a simultaneous electron gain.
  55. Generalized form for Each of the Subclasses or Redox Reactions
    • 1. Combination reaction: x + y -> xy
    • 2. Decomposition reaction: xy -> x + y
    • 3. Replacement reaction: xy + z -> xz + y
  56. Chemical Heating Activity
    The vinegar reacted with the steel wool and produced heat energy. Evidence of a chemical reaction: produced rust, heat, and moisture
  57. Breakdown Activity
    • Change hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen with the aid of a potato
    • Tiny bubbles form and rise to the top
    • The potato releases oxygen to form bubbles
    • Decomposition Reaction: H2O2 >> 2H2O(l) + O2 (g)
    • The potato contains enzymes catalase that speeds up the reaction.
  58. Exothermic Exercise
    Mix yeast with hydrogen peroxide. The yeast reacted to the hydrogen peroxide and heat energy was released raising the temperature of the mixture. Evidence of a chemical reaction: heat is produced, bubbles produced
  59. Endothermic Exercise
    • The Epsom salt absorbed the water's natural heat energy to split apart the magnesium and sulphate therefore making the water cooler.
    • MgSO4 + H2O
  60. Bill Nye - Chemical Reactions
    • Everything is mad of chemicals
    • Chemicals react to make new chemicals
    • Electrons hook together
    • Chemicals react with chemicals in the air and give off heat
    • Water is the most important chemical
    • 92 pure elements
    • Alfred Nobel - Swedish chemist who invented dynamite

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