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- Mapping a graphing tools
- Self-report tools
- Teaching and role plays
Most frequently used assissment tool. Can be structured, semi-structured or unstructured.
- -Advantages: easier to conensid
- -Disadvantages: lease systematic way to get information
Mapping a graphing tools
- Social network map and grid
Collects and organizes data along genealogical lines. Can show many aspects of family patterns.
Depicts the family's interactions with various systems and may indicate where changes may be needed with environmental systems to improve interaction and support.
Social network map and grid
Patterns depicting the personal relationships that sustain each individual by helping him/her cope with demands of living and crisis events.
Must decide what to measure and why. These tools are used to measure an issue or problem and whether or not it changes over time - importance of creating a baseline. They can measure circumstances, attitude, skills, and behavior
- Two types of self report tools
- -Standardized tools
- -Pragmatic indicators
- rating scales
- self-anchored scales
Teaching and role plays
- role playing
- offering feedback
Four Areas for intervention
Four Areas for intervention
- Changing cognitive thinking
- Changing affective factors
- Changing behaviors
- Creating opportunities
Changing cognitive thinking
This involves changing a family's perceptions or thinking about a problem or behavior. When people are able to change view of themselves they are frequently able to see solutions to problems.
- Two cognitive techniques
Turning problems into strengths. Problems are reframed into abilities.
Families often benefit from education or information about a problem or ways of handling a problem. Some families may require additional intervention such as coaching, mentoring, parent training, etc.
Changing affective factors
A person's emotional state often influences his/her ability to deal with problems. It is helpful for families to understand the connection between feelings and behaviors. It is also helpful for family members to learn how other members of the family might be feeling about a particular situation.
Families can learn to change behavior by generation alternative responses to a problem or issue. Techniques sunc as role-play, rehearsal and choaching may be used; developing rituals can also assist with behavior change.
The family is shaped by multi-system influences. May need to support the family in these systems.
Brown School Process Model
Brown School Process Model
Gay/Lesbian Parent Families
- Children Risk Factors
- Children Protective Factors
Children Protective Factors
- Gradparents Raising Grandchildren
- -Relevant Statistics
- -Common reason why grandchildre live with grandparents
- -What are the issues grandparetns face?
More than one in 10 grandparents will parent a grandchild for at least six months.
The number of grandparents raising grandchildren is rising dramatically. In 1997 almost 4 million children were living in grandparents home u 76% from 1970. Of those 4 million children 36% had neigher parent living in the home.
5.6 million grandparents had grandchildren living with them. Almost half of these had responsibility for the grandchildren.
Families headed by grandparentss are more likelly to be poor and live in/near major cities.
Families headed by single grandparents are more likely to by headed by women, persons of color and poor people.
13.5% of African American childre, 6.5% of Hispanic children and 4.1% of Caucasian children live with grandparents.
Common reasons why grandchildre live with grandparents
- Parental drug and alcohol abuse
- Neglect or abandonment of children
- Physical or mental illness
- Death of one or both parents
- teenage pregnancy
- Parental joblessness
What are the issues grandparetns face?
Many grandparents already live on fixed income and face additional financial burden when taking on grandchildren. They may face eviction from subsidized housing or senior housing. They may be denied foster parent benefits because of their blood relationship in some states.
Grandparents raising grandchildren can pursue adoption, guardianship or certification as a foster parent - but usually the parent(s) must be dead or agree to terminate rights in which parent must testify against child. Grandparents without legal rights who assume the role of primary caretaker often face difficulties with schools, health care centers, etc. Grandparents must abide by parents' wishes even if they disagree.
- Power Structure/Decision-Making
Internal boundaries and family subsystems-All families devlop networks of coexisiting subsystems formed on the vasis of gender, inerest, generation
- -sometive cross generations
- --children (brother and sister)
- --mother and daughter
- --boy, girl
- --grandparent, grandkid
These subsystems are often referred to as coalitions or alliances. Many are temporary in nature. They may be healthy or problematic.
- Complementary alliance
- Symmetrical alliance
- Multimember coalitions
Spouse, parental and sibling sybsystems tend to be more enduring in nature.
The clarity of boundaries within these subsystems is a useful tool for evaluating family functioning. Rules determine the clarity of subsystmes. Boundaries must be well defined enough to allow members sufficient differentiation to cary out functions without undue interference, but permeable enough to allow for contact and exchange of resources between members of the subsytem and others.
- Enmeshment: Intangled and invovled/ to catch.
- -It fosters dependents
- Disengagement: To release from a company that holds fast.
- -It fosters independents
Enmeshment and disengagement are not necessarily dysfunctional at particular phases on the lfie cycle for brief periods of time--but continued operation at eitherend of the continuum may signal the presence of maladaptive behaviors and rules.
Distribution and balance of power
1. Families have multiple power structures. Wives may have more power in some decisions; husbands in others depending on expertise in certain areas and upon whatever "agreements" have been negotiated.
2. To the extent that children influence decisions they are part of the power structure.
3. Culture helps define the allocation of power in families.
Shifts in power
inner and outer stressors may cause shifts in the balance of power.
- -taking care of mother when she got Alzheimers
- -mental illness
- -substance abuse
One must assess not only how power is distributed, but also whether or not stressors are threatening the established power base.
Unless the power dynamics play a role in the family problem it is not appropriat to seek adjustment.
Covertly held power
Power can be usurped from a power figure or from the executive subsystem via covert coalitions
People can also exercise the use of covert power though the use of emotional or physical symptoms.
- Who holds the balance of power?
- Who if anyone is the formally designated leader?
- To what extent do member who have aligned to form a power bloc covertly hold power?
- To what extent is covert power accrued by members who manifest extreme sysptoms?
- What is the role of culture indetermining the distribution of power?
A. Homeostasis is maintained to the extent that all family member adhere to limited number of rules or implicit agreements pertaining to the rights, duties and range of appropriate behaviors.
B. Rules are formulas for relatioships or guides for conduct and action by the family. They may be overt or covert
C. Rules are influenced by culture
D. Rules may be functional or dysfunctional
- E. Violation of rules
- Family members employ habitual modes of resoring conditions to heeir previous state of equilibrium
F. Flexibility of rules
- -Curfew at 10pm
- -No under age drinking
- -A rule that exist, but is never said as a rule. It's just understood.
rules that contribute to the development of adaptive, capable and healthy family members.
rules that have destructive consequences for family membver sucha as infliction emotional damage, limiting accommodation to changing circumstances, or restricting choices and growth opportunities.
Power is the capacity of one member to induce change in the behavior of other family members. The more "need fulfilling" resources one member has inrelation to toehr members, the more power the person has. Needs include requirememtns for economic support, love, affections and approval.
The family is ever evolving, creating a balance between change and stability
1. Homeostasis is the process by which the family system maintains balance in its structure and operation.
2. Change is normal and necessary, but there is a tendency to see change as negative
3. Prolonged change can lead to instability in the system. The system must shift and reorganize.
1. To provide a way of controlling the often-overwhelming emotions that is typically associated with a crisis and gives clear expectations for action at a time when problem-solving capacity may be litmited.
2. Connection to intergenerational culture both societal and interfamilial.
3. Reinforces commitment and emotioanl bonding.
- -Ritual of connection
- -Ritual of celebration
Ritual of connection
- -Family meal
- -Bath time
- -Bed-time-Reading to children
Rituals of celebration
- -Birthday parties
- Children's reactions
- Risk Factors
- Protective Factors
- -Yelling are common
- -Intense occasional sadness/ crying, anger, and low frustration tolerance.
- -Children at this age may develop a fear of abandonment, needing to be close, separation anxiety.
Child 5-7 Years Old
- -attempts to get parents back together are common
- -Children at this age often worry, feel "I'm to blame", and throw temper tantrums.
Child 8-12 Years Old
- -Rejection of one parent
- -Acting out
- -Somatic complaints
- -Perfectionism are common
- -Children often experience shame, blame, insecurity and sadness. They wonder about "Who's fault is the divorce?" They feel powerless and sometiems are indenial ("It's no big deal.")
Child 13-18 Years Old
- -controlling behaviors
- -withdrawal are common
- -Children are often sad, confused, angry, resentful and apathetic.
Child an Adult
- -Fear of commitment
- -distrust of opposite sex
- -fear of success
- -apprehension about marriage are common
- -There are frequently unresolved identity issues and symptoms of mild depression.
- Child 13-18 Years Old
- -Drug and/or alcohol abues
1. Step families are the same as nuclear families
2. Becoming a step family happens immediately after the marriage ceremony.
3. In most cases instant love occurs among all step family members.
4. Step families that occur after the death of a spouse face fewer adjustment problems.
5. Being a part time step family is easier than a ful time step family
Step families are the same as nuclear families
Differnces between biological and step families
a. The step family is born of loss.
b. No legal relationship exists between stepchildren and stepparents.
c. A biological parent exists somewhere else.
d. The paren-child relationships that existed before the forming of the step family are older and stronger thatn the bond between the new couple.
e. Time does not permit the coupel bond to develop and strengthen before they need to respond to children's needs.
Becoming a step family happens immediately after the marriage ceremony.
a. On the average it takes a step family 4-7 years to stabilize and to become the "we" that is necessary for success.
In most cases instant love occurs among all step family members.
a. All relationships take time to develop. In step famiies there is the added compllicaiton of individuals bringing emotional baggage from former relationships that can affect step family relationships.
b. Diversity of habits and beliefs can create distance between individuals.
Step families that occur after the death of a spouse face fewer adjustment problems.
a. Parnts remain psychologically important to children even when they are dead, and may be elevated to sainthood by both the child and hte child's parent.
b. Some grieving adults remary too soon before they and their childr ehave resolved the loss of the spouse/parent. Children may see remarriage as a betrayal.
Being a part time step family is easier than a ful time step family.
a. During short stays in the step family ther is little time to establish closeness. Relationships tend to remain looser and weaker.
b. Children are at risk for losing their sense of belonging in the family.
Stages of Stepfamily Development
- Honeymoon/Fantasy Stage
- Chaos Stage
- Awareness State
- Action Stage
- Commitment Stage
During this time adults in the family may feel very positive about the relationships with the family, while children may have mixed feelings. Adults and children have differing thoughts and expectations (parents may expect instant "love" between stepfamily members while children may fantasize about biological parents reunititng).
Children may feel they are being disloyal to a parent if they begin liking the stepparent. Parents may desire a relationship similar to their first while feeling like they are in the "middle" of their new mate and their children. Some stepparents may feel left out while struggling with conflicts about money, disciplin, household routines and rules.
During this stage adults become aware that problems are common and that changes may need to occur, yet family members also realize that they can only change their own behavior.
Issues are identified and addressed, sometimes by way of a support group or counseling. Adults unify to strengthen their own relationship and try hard to understand how each family member feels about individual situations.
Relationships become stronger as stepfamilies realize that by working together, they can work things out and begin building their own history and traditions.
Single Parent Families
- Protective Factors (Search Institute)
- Risk Factors
- Positive school climate
- Positive peer influences
- Educational aspirations
- Families who emphasized the importance of homework
- Valued sexual restraint
- Had parent involved in school
- Could turn to parent for support
- Had explicit parental standards
- Involvement in extracurricular activities
- Involvemnt in religious organizations
- Drug and alcohol Abuse
- Sexual Promiscuity
- Antisocial and Criminal Behavior
- Lower Educational, occupational and Economic Attainment
- Poor Health
- Less Stability In Their Own Marriages
are the system of moral prescriptions or way of acting that express your values.
Del Sol Family
- -37 years old
- -works 2 jobs (FT: auto-repair shop; PT: auto-parts store [evenings & weekends])
- -Dropped out at 15 and left home
- -has a 6th grade education
- -heavily involved with drugs and alcohol as a teen
- -Physically tired and irritalbe
- -Wants to spend more time with family
- -Miguel's wife
- -Mom helps out with girls
- -Rosa's 9 year old son
- -Stays in trouble
- -Not very social=no friends
- -Miguel and Rosa 3 year old daughter
- -Talks for Tina
- -Miguel and Rosa 18 month daughter
- -Family is financial struggling
- -verbal abuse
- -Married 4 years
- -Own home-purchased it 4 months ago
- -Miguel's goal is the manage his own shop
- -one car that Miguel drives to work
- Big Mama
- Our House
- Don't Divorce the Children
- Black Family
- -grandma taking care of her grandson
- Gay/Lebian Families
- -how the children dealt with same sex familes.
Don't Divorce the Children
- 7 Different Families
- -how they dealt with divorce