Pharm Midterm I, I

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Pharm Midterm I, I
2011-03-09 09:59:53

Pharm Midterm I, I
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  1. What type of drugs are used to manipulate the CNS?
    • Sedatives
    • Analgesics
  2. Drugs used to induce general anesthesia
    • Local anaesthesic drugs
    • Muscle relaxant drugs
    • Inhalational anaesthetic drugs
  3. What are the 4 forms of anesthesia?
    • General
    • Regional
    • Spinal
    • Epidural
  4. What key neurotransmitters are you blocking with drugs affecting the CNS?
    • Glutamate
    • y-amino butyric acid (GABA)
    • Glycine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
    • Acetylcholine
    • Histamine
    • Endogenous opioids
  5. What are the two ways neurotransmitters can be classified?
    • By chemical structure
    • By effect on neurons (excitatory or inhibitory)
  6. What neurotransmitter is excitatory, is the ligand for inotropic receptors (AMPA, NMDA, Kainate) and metabotropic receptors? (NMDA plays a key role in synaptic plasticity)
  7. What neurotransmitter is inhibitory in the mammalian CNS and is also involved in the regulation of muscle tone?
  8. What neurotransmitter is a key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and is also an obligatory coagonist for excitatory NMDA receptor activation?
  9. What neurotransmitter acts on alpha1, alpha2, beta1, and beta2 receptors and acts on axons of the neurons in the locus coeruleus?
  10. What neurotransmitter is a precursor to norepinephrine and acts on 2 key receptor types (further divided into a total of 5 subtypes)?
  11. What neurotransmitter is produced by the enterochromaffin cells and plays a major role in several classes of pharmacological antidepressants?
  12. What neurotransmitter works through H1 and H3 receptors? (H1 receptor antagonists drugs are well known to cause drowsiness)
  13. What are some reasons to give sedatives before inducing general anaesthsia?
    • Calm animals so they can be more easily handled
    • Help reduce the amount of other anaesthetic drugs
    • Provide pre-emptive analgesia
  14. Acepromaine is an antagonist of what receptors :
    • dopamine
    • alpha1 r
    • histamine H
    • serotonin (5HT2)
  15. What sedative causes hypotension, has an anti-arrhythmic effect, decreases the PCV and platelet numbers, and can produce penile relaxation in cattle and horses?
  16. Which dogs seem to be extremely sensitive to acepromazine?
    • Large breed dogs
    • Boxers
  17. What are some contraindications for acepromazine (ACP) (6)?
    • Hypovolemic or shocked animals
    • animals with impaired liver function
    • anemic animals
    • animals at risk of seizuring
    • Breeding stallions
    • skin testing for atopy
  18. What class of sedatives do droperidol and azaperone fall under?
  19. What drugs block the action of dopamine and norepinephrine and are a weak alpha-adrenoreceptor inhibitor?
  20. Which sedative is a short acting tranquilizer that is primarily used in pigs?
  21. Alpha2 agonists
    • Xylazine
    • Detomidine
    • Romifidine
    • Medetomidine
    • Dexmedotomidine
  22. Alpha2 antagonists
    • Atipamezoie
    • Yohimbine
    • Tolazoline
  23. Which animals are relatively insensitive to all alpha2 drugs?