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What animals should you never use atropine in?
What are the general principles of analgesia that you must understand?
- Pre-emptive analgesia
- Multimodal analgesia
- Regonal/local analgesia
- Analgesic infusions
What type of analgesia provides the best quality of analgesia?
What are the three general groups of opioid receptors?
(OR) 1, 2, 3
Opioid receptor 3 leads to.... (6)
- Activation of supraspinal analgesia
- Spinal analgesia
- Respiratory depression
What opioid receptors are located principally in the limbic system and control analgesia and modulation of receptors 3?
Opioid 2 Receptors are located where?
- Cerebral Cortex
- Spinal Cord
Opioid 2 Receptors control...
- Spinal analgesia
- Vasopressin release
What are the two ways that opioids are classified?
- Pharmacological structure
- Receptor affinity
What are the four ways opioids can be classified concerning pharmacological structure?
- Endogenous opioid peptides
- Opium alkaloids
- Semi-synthetic opioids
- Fully synthetic opioids
In which animals is dysphoria and mania most common when administering opioids?
Can opioids be potent respiratory depressants, depressing both rate and tidal volume?
What kind of effect do opioids have on the cardiovascular system?
Minimal effects at therapeutic doses
Which opioid will almost always trigger vomiting?
What effect do opioids have on the urinary system?
Which animals show depressive effects in general when given opioids (6)?
Which animals show excitability at low doses of opioids (5)?
Why do cats have dysphoric effects when given opioids?
- Cats have deficiencies in glucuronidation pathways (how opioids are metabolized)
- Also causes mydriasis
Which opioid has useful spasmolytic effects and should never be administered IV (causes histamine release and anaphylactoid reaction, collapse)?
Morphine opioid causes?
- Nausea and vomiting
- Histamine release (following IV bolus)
- Inhibition of ADH -> urinary retention
What are the KEY potential side effects/concerns w/ opioid usage (10)?
- Human Abuse
- Tolerance/Dec Analgesic Efficacy
- Respiratory Depression
- GI fx
- Cardiovascuar Fx
- Dysphoria/Mania/Other behavioral
- Urinary Retention
- Biliary Stasis/Sphincter Closure
Which opioids are best for severe pain?
Which opioids are best for less painful procedures and less severe soft tissue injury?
Butorphanol is a poor ______, but a good ____ & _____
- poor Analgesic
- good Sedative and Anti-Tussive
affinity for receptors
Of the Opioids, which is the most potent? The least potent?
- Most= Etorphin
- Least= Meperidine
Which opioid causes dysphoria in cats?
What happens when Opioids are overdosed?
Greatly prolonged duration of action (switches from 1st order to 2nd order)
opioids are metabolized by...
Advantages of opioids (5):
- Positive Ventilatory Fx if decreased d/t pain
- Effects can be antagonized
- Dose Dependent/Receptors through out body
- Anaesthetic sparing effect