Pharm, Midterm I, II

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Pharm, Midterm I, II
2011-03-10 12:09:29

Pharm, Midterm I, II
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  1. When are alpha2 agonists contraindicated (6)?
    • Hypotension
    • Hypovolemia
    • Cardiac disease
    • liver failure
    • urinary obstruction
    • cows in last trimester of pregnancy
  2. What do presynaptic alpha2 receptors act as?
    Prejunctional inhibitory receptors (inhibit release of norepinephrine)
  3. How do alpha2 agonists produce a vasoconstrictive effect?
    Action on post-synaptic alpha2 receptors located on peripheral vascular smooth muscles
  4. Ruminants are exquisitely sensitive to this alpha2 agonists...
  5. Which alpha2 agonist can cause pulmonary edema in small ruminants when administered IV?
  6. What are some advantages of using xylazine?
    • rapid onset
    • Visceral analgesia
    • good muscle relaxation
  7. What are some disadvantages of using xylazine?
    • Bradycardia
    • vomiting
    • occasional "wake up" without warning in horses
    • Hypersalivation in ruminants (and cats)
  8. What alpha2 agonist is licensed to use in horses and used in wild animal sedation (darts), and is administered alone or in combination with injected opioids
  9. Which alpha2 agonist is licensed and only used in horses, and is a less potent skeletal muscle relaxant (steady horse for radiography)?
  10. Which alpha 2 agonist can be given sublingually?
  11. Medetomidine is licensed in...
    and is used in....
    • (alpha 2 agonist)
    • licensed in dogs and cats,
    • used in most animals, should only be used in healthy animals
  12. Which alpha2 agonist is considered the "best one"?
  13. What are some recommendations for minimizing the risks associated with medetomidine?
    • Have the appropriate dose of reversal agent close at hand
    • Do not administer atropine to an animal that develops bradycardia
    • If heart rate is excessively low, administer atipamezole
  14. What alpha2 antagonist is licensed for reversal of medetomidine and dexmedetomidine, full reversal takes 4-5 mins following IM, and is recommended to be administered slowly or IM?
  15. Which alpha2 antagonist is licensed for reversal of xylazine?
  16. Which alpha2 antagonist has antagonist activities at both alpha1 and alpha2 receptors?
  17. Which class of sedatives tend to be reserved for old, sick, or debilitated animals, used to control seizures, is an appetite stimulant, and used for treatment in behavioral disorders in dogs and cats?
  18. Benzodiazepines include:
    • Diazepam
    • Midazolam
    • Zolazepam
  19. What are some benzodiazepine antagonists?
    • Flumazenil
    • Sarmazenil
  20. Which benzodiazepine requires a solvent of propylene glycol/benzyl alcohol, is less painful on IV injection, and should never be administered IM?
  21. Which benzodiazepine forms active metabolites, oxazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, and 3-hydroxydiazepam?
  22. Which class of drugs depresses polysynaptic reflexes in the spinal cord and acts at the BZ-GABA receptor to increase affinity for GABA and increase chloride conduction across ligand-gated channels?
  23. Do benzodiazepines have a lot of cardiovascular effects?
    No, minimal cardiovascular depression
  24. What are some anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) drugs?
    • Atropine
    • Glycopyrrolate