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What was instrumental music in the Romantic Era viewed as?
This music in the Romantic Era was viewed as the ideal romantic art
How did Romanticism view vocal work?
In this Era vocal works were said to be limited in its expressive range (words say what it means)
What did Schopenhauer's instrumental music express?
His music expressed the innermost reality of human feelings (evokes response)
What professional orchestras were founded in the Romantic Era?
- These professional orchestras were founded in this time period
- Londond Philharmonic
- New York Philharmonic
- Vienna Philharmonic
When was the London Philharmonic Orchestra founded?
This Orchestra was founded in 1813
When was the New York Philharmonic Orchestra founded?
This American Orchestra was founded in 1842
When was the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra was founded?
This European Orchestra was founded in 1842
What were the changes in orchestral instruments in the Romantic Era?
- The changes in orchestral instruments in this Era included
- Woodwinds acquiring keys
- Valves being added to brass
- Chromatic harp (as opposed to one key harp)
- Added tuba, piccolo, English horn, bass clarinet, and contrabassoon
How many Symphonies did Franz Peter Schubert write?
This Romantic composer wrote 9 Symphonies
What happened to one of Schubert's Symphonies?
His Symphony Number 8, "The Unfinished Symphony" was never finished. He moved on to Symphony Number 9
What is Schuber's Symphony Number 9 called?
This Symphony is called "The Great C Major Symphony"
What comment did Schumann say about Schubert's Symphony Number 9?
He said that The Great C Major Symphony is of "Heavenly Length"
What is program music?
This music is a type of music contrasting to absolute music
What is absolute music?
This type of music has form and structure
What does program music do?
This type of music tells a story
What is Romanitic music associated with?
This music is associated with poetic, descriptive, or narrative subject matter
What are the types of program music?
- This type of music inclueds
- Program Symphony
- Concert Overture
- Symphonic Poem or tone poem
- Incidental music
What does the Symphonic poem or tone poem do?
This type of music just follows the storyline
What does incidental music do?
This type of music is background music during plays
What did Hector Berlioz write?
- He wrote
- Symphonie Fantastique
- Harold en Italie
- Romeo et Juliette
- Treatise on Instrumentation and Orchestration
What was Symphonic Fantastique
- This Hector Berlioz Symphony was Autobiographical
- -Idee fixe
What is idee fixe?
This part means a recurring theme
What was Harold en Halie?
This Hector Berlioz was a Viola Solo
What was Romeo and Juliet?
This Hector Berlioz was a dramatic symphony in 7 movements for solo vocalists and chorus
When was Hector Berlioz's treatise on instrumentation and orchestration written?
This Hector Berlioz's treatise was written in 1843
What was the title of the first Symphonie Fantastique?
This first title is Marche Au Supplice
When was the Symphonic Fantastic written?
This Symphony was written the year after Beethoven died, the same year Schubert died
When did Berlioz get his idee fixes?
Berlioz thought of these when he was overdosed
What happens in Movement IV of Symphonic fantastique?
In this Berlioz Symphony, the plot is that he murders his love
What are the characteristics of Berlioz's Symphonic fantastique
- The characteristics of this Berlioz Symphony
- Bows mock ghosts and witches with back of bow
- Has distorted idee fixee from Movement IV mocking her
- Uses church bells to represent priests showing up
- Dies irae - three times
What is the fifth movement from Berlioz's Symphonic fantastique called?
This Berlioz's movement is called Witches' Sabbath
What did Felix Mendelssohn write?
- This composer wrote
- Songs without words (for piano)
- Italian Symphony (No. 4)
- Scottish Symphony (No. 3)
- Hebrides - overture
- Overture to "A Midsummer Night's Dream"
- 4 Piano concertos
- Violin Concerto in E Minor
What is the Overture to "A Midsummer Night's Dream"
This piece is Incidental Music for some of the scenes in A Midsummer Night's Dream
What are the characteristics of Mendelssohn's Overture to "A Midsummer Night's Dream" and their form?
- The characteristics of this Mendelssohn's piece has
- Enchanted forest at midnight - Intro
- Wood nymphs -1st theme
- King Oberon's Court - Transition or bridge
- Lovers - 2nd theme
- Acting Troupe - Close
- Sonata Allegro Form
Who did Mendelssohn hire in for Violin Concerto in E Minor?
Mendelssohn hired Ferdinan David for this Concerto
What is chamber music?
This music means one person per part
What is chamber music written for?
Most of this music is written for quartets, quintets, and trios
What were Schubert's early quartets modeled after?
Most of this Romantic composers' type of music was modeled after Mozart and Haydn
What theme does the Trout Quintet use?
This Schubert piece uses the theme froom lied, Die Forelle
Who's style did Brahms follow?
This romantic composer was a successor to Beethoven in chamber music
Sonantas form piano with another instrument
Who were other Romantic chamber composers?
- Other composers of this style were
- Felix Mendelssohn
- Robert Schumann
- Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
- Clara Schumann
What did Clara Schumann write?
She wrote the Piano Trio in G Minor (Mvt. III)
What form was Schumann's Piano Trio in G Minor?
This Romantic Trio was in ABA form
What type of instruments were in Schumann's Piano Trio in G Minor?
This trio used period instruments
What was the role of Choral music in the Romantic Era?
- The role of this Romantic group was used to
- Support roles in operas, oratorios and symphonies
- Church music (Cecilian Movement)
- Amateur choral societies (Berlin Singakademie)
Who was the first person to use choral music in his Symphony?
Beethoven was the first person to use this music in his Symphonies
What were some oratorios and other large works in the Romantic Era?
- Two of this type of music are
- Handel and Haydn Society
- Bach Revival
When was the Handel and Haydn's Society performed and where
This concert was performed in 1815 in Boston
When was the Bach Revival started?
This was started in 1829
What did Mendelssohn perform in the Bach Revival?
He performed St. Matthew Passion
What were Mendelsson's oratorios modeled after?
His oratorios were modeled after Handel
What were two of Mendelsson's oratorios?
What were the characteristics of Mendelssoh's Elijah?
- The characteristics of this piece were
- Choral Finale (In English)
- Homorhythmic opening
- Fugal statement
- Imitative Amen
- Contrasts major, minor and chromatic
What liturgical text did Schubert write?
This Romantic composer wrote Mass in A-flat
What liturgical text did Berlioz write?
This Romantic composer wrote Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem) - Te Deum
What liturgical text did Rossini write?
This Romantic composer wrote Stabat Mater
What liturgical text did Verdi write?
This Romantic composer wrote Requiem
When did Lowell Mason live?
This Romantic composer lived from 1792-1872)
What was Lowell Mason president of?
He was president of the Handel and Haydn Society
What did Lowell Mason found?
He founded the Boston Academy of Music
What did the Boston Academy of Music do?
This started music education for children in schools
Who introduced music into the public school curriculum?
Lowell Mason introduced music here
What did Lowell Mason compose?
He composed over 1000 hymn tunes