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A disease of the lungs in which muscle spasm in the small air passageways and the production of large amounts of mucus with swelling of the mucus lining of the respiratory passages results in airway obstruction.
A substance that causes an allergic reaction.
Carbon dioxide retention
A condition characterized by a chronically high blood level of carbon dioxide in which the respiratory center no longer responds to high blood levels of carbon dioxide.
Irritation of the major lung passageways, from either infectious disease or irritants such as smoke.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A slow process of dilation and disruption of the airways and alveoli, caused by chronic bronchial obstruction.
Crackling, rattling breath sounds signaling fluid in the air spaces of the lungs.
An infectious disease of the upper respiratory system that may cause partial airway obstruction and is characterized by barking cough; usually seen in children
An infectious disease in which a membrane forms, lining the pharynx; this lining can serverly obstruct the passage of the air into the larynx.
Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
A blood clot or other substance in the circulatory system that travels to a blood vessel where it causes blockage.
A disease of the lungs in which there is extreme dilation and eventual destruction of pulmonary alveoli with poor exchange of oxygen and barbon dioxide; it is one form of COPD.
An infectious disease in which the epiglotis becomes inflamed and enlarged and may cause upper airway obstruction.
Rapid or deep breathing that lowers blood carbon dioxide levels below normal.
A condition in which the body's cells and tissues do not have enough oxygen.
A collection of fluid between the lung and chest wall that may compress the lung.
Pleuritic chest pain
Sharp, stabbing pain in the chest that is worsened by a deep breath or other chest wall movement; often caused by inflammation or irritaion of the pleura.
An infectious disease of the lung that damages lung tissue.
A partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space
A buildup of fluid in the lungs, usually as a result of congestive heart falure.
A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow.
Coarse breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the airways.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Potentially lifethreatening viral infection that usually starts with flu-like symptoms.
A harsh, high-pitched, barking inspiratory sound often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction.
A high-pitched, whistling breath sound, characteristcially heard on expiration in patients with asthma or COPD.
Whats does the upper airway consist of?
- Nasal air passage
- Main bronchi
Signs of adequate breathing.
- A normal rate and depth
- A regular pattern of inhalation and exhalation
- Good audible breath sounds on both sides of the chest
- A regular rise and fall movement on both sides of the chest
- Pink, warm, dry skin
Signs of Inadequate breathing
- A rate of breathing that is slower that 12 breaths/min or faster then 24 breaths/min
- Unequal chest expansion
- Decreased breath soundson one or both sides of the chest
- Muscle retractions above the clavicles, between the ribs, and below the rib cage, especially in children
- Pale or cyanotic skin
- Cool, damp (clammy) skin
- Shallow or irregular respirations
- Pursed lips
- Nasal flaring
Signs and symptoms of pulmonary emboli
- Acute chest pain
- Hemoptysis (coughing blood)
- Varying degrees of hypoxia
The principal function of the lungs is respiration, which is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.