bio ch 9

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bio ch 9
2011-03-08 19:00:03

ch 9
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  1. acute bronchitis
    infection of the primary and secondary bronchi
  2. alveolus
    air sac of a lung
  3. asthma
    condition in which bronchioles constrict and cause difficulty breathing
  4. auditory (Eustachian) tube
    extension from the middle ear to the nasopharynx that equalizes air pressure on the eardrum.
  5. bicarbonate ion
    ion that participates in buffering the blood; the form in which carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream.
  6. bronchiole
    smaller air passages in the lungs that begin at the bronchi and terminate in alveoli.
  7. bronchus
    one of two major divisions of the trachea leading to the lungs
  8. carbaminhemoglobin
    hemoglobin carrying carbon dioxide
  9. carbonic anhydrase
    enzyme in red blood cells that speeds the formation of carbonic acid from the reactants water and carbon dioxide.
  10. chemoreceptor
    sensory receptor sensitive to chemical stimuli - ex: receptors for taste and smell.
  11. chronic bronchitis
    obstructive pulmonary disorder that tends to recur; marked by inflamed airways filled with mucus and degenerative changes in the bronchi, including loss of cilia.
  12. cough
    sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infections.
  13. dead air space
    volume of inspired air that cannot be exchanged with blood.
  14. emphysema
    degenerative lung disorder in which the bursting of alveolar walls reduces the total surface area for gas exchange.
  15. epiglottis
    structure that covers the glottis during the process of swallowing.
  16. expiration
    act of expelling air from the lungs; also called exhalation.
  17. expiratory reserve volume
    volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after normal exhalation
  18. external respiration
    exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood
  19. glottis
    opening for airflow in the larynx
  20. infant respiratory distress syndrome
    condition in newborns especially premature ones, in which the lungs collapse because of a lack of surfactant lining the alveoli.
  21. inspiration
    act of taking air into the lungs; also called inhalation.
  22. inspiratory reserve volume
    volume of air that can be forcibly inhaled after normal inhalation
  23. internal respiration
    exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and tissue fluid.
  24. laryngitis
    infection of the larynx with accompanying hoarseness.
  25. larynx
    cartilaginous organ located between the pharynx and the trachea that contains the vocal cords; also called the voice box.
  26. lung cancer
    malignant growth that often begins in the bronchi
  27. lungs
    paired, cone-shaped organs within the thoracic cavity; function in internal respiration and contain moist surfaces for gas exchange.
  28. nasal cavity
    one of two canals in the nose, separated by a septum.
  29. otitis media
    infection of the middle ear, characterized by pain and possibly by a sense of fullness, hearing, loss, vertigo, and fever.
  30. oxyhemoglobin
    compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin
  31. pharynx
    portion of the digestive tract between the mouth and the esophagus that serves as a passageway for food and also for air on its way to the trachea.
  32. pleurae
    serous membrane that encloses the lungs
  33. pneumonectomy
    surgical removal of all or part of a lung
  34. pnemonia
    infection of the lungs that causes alveoli to fill with mucus and pus.
  35. pulmonary fibrosis
    accumulation of fibrous connective tissue in the lungs; caused by inhaling irritating particles such as silica, coal, dust, or asbestos.
  36. pulmonary tuberculosis
    tuberculosis of the lungs, caused by the bacillus mycobacterium tuberculosis
  37. reduced hemoglobin
    hemoglobin carrying hydrogen ions
  38. residual volume
    amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forceful expiration
  39. respiratory control center
    group of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata that sends out nerve impulses on a rhythmic basis, resulting in involuntary inspiration on an ongoing basis.
  40. sinusitis
    infection of the sinuses, caused by blockage of the openings to the sinuses and characterized by postnatal discharge and facial pain.
  41. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
    any sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year.
  42. surfactant
    agent that reduces the surface tension of water; in the lungs, a surfactant prevents the alveoli from collapsing.
  43. tidal volume
    amount of air normally moved in the human body during an inspiration or expiration
  44. tonsils
    partially encapsulated lymph nodules located in the pharynx
  45. tonsillectomy
    surgical removal of the tonsils
  46. tonsillitis
    infection of the tonsils that causes inflammation and can spread to the middle ears
  47. trachea
    passageway that conveys air from the larynx to the bronchi; also called the windpipe
  48. tracheostomy
    creation of an artificial airway by incision of the trachea and insertion of a tube
  49. ventilation
    process of moving air into and out of the lungs; also called breathing
  50. vital capacity
    maximum amount of air moved in or out of the human body with each breathing cycle.
  51. vocal cord
    fold of tissue within the larynx; creates vocal sounds when it vibrates.