Anatomy & Physiology

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Anatomy & Physiology
2011-03-08 21:57:42

Chapter 26
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  1. Mucous Membrane
    A membrane that lines a body cavity that opens to the exterior. Also called the mucosa
  2. Glucosuria
    The presence of glucose in the urine; may be temporary or pathological. Also called glycosuria
  3. Antidiuretic hormone
    Hormone produced by neurosecretory cells in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus that stimulates water reabsorption from kidney tubule cells into the blood and vasoconstriction of arterioles. Also called vasopressin.
  4. Nephron
    The functional unity of the kidney
  5. Aldosterone
    A mineralcorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium and water reabsorption by the kidneys and potassium excretion in urine
  6. Parenchyma
  7. The functional parts of any organ, as opposed to tissue that forms its stroma or framework.
  8. Glomerular capsule
    A double-walled globe at the proximal end of a nephron that encloses the glomerular capillaries. Also called Bowman's capsule.
  9. Glomerular filtrate
    The fluid produced when blood is filtered by the filtration membrane in the glomeruli of the kidneys
  10. Muscularis
    A muscular layer (coat or tunic) of an organ
  11. Chief cell
    • The secreting cell of a gastric gland that produces pepsinogen the precursor of the enzyme gastric lipase. Also called a zymogenic cell.
    • Cell in the parathyroid glands that secretes parathyroid hormone. Also called a principal cell.
  12. Adventitia
    The outermost covering of a structure or organ
  13. Vasa recta
    Extensions of the efferent arteriole of ajuxtamedullary nephron that run alongside the loop of the nephron (Henle) in the medullary region of the kidney
  14. Detrusor muscle
    Smooth muscle that forms the wall of the urinary bladder
  15. Ureter
    One of the two tubes that connect the kidney with the urinary bladder
  16. Kidney
    One of the paired reddish organs located in the lumbar region that regulates the composition, volume, and pressure of blood and produces urine
  17. Trigone
    A triangular region at the base of the urinary bladder
  18. Renal corpuscle
    A glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and its enclosed glomerulus
  19. Urinary bladder
    A hollow, muscular organ situated in the pelvic cavity posterior to the pulic symphysis; receives urine via to ureters and stores unine until it is excreted through the urethra.
  20. Juxtaglomerular apparatus
    Consists of the macula densa (cells of the distal convoluted tubule adjacent to the afferent and efferent arteriole) and the juxtaglomerular cells (modified cells of the afferent and sometimes efferent arteriole) secretes renin when blood pressure starts to fall.
  21. Dialysis
    The removal of waste products from blood by diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane
  22. Serous membrane
    A membrane that lines a body cavity that does not open to the exterior. The external layer of an organ formed by a serous membrane. The membrane that lines the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Also called a serosa
  23. Urinalysis
  24. An analysis of the volume and physical, chemical and microscopic properties of urine
  25. Afferent arteriole
    A blood vessel of a kidney that divides into the capillary network called a glomerulus; there is one afferent arteriole for each glomerulus
  26. Lamina propria
    The connective tissue layer of a mucosa
  27. Glomerulus
    A rounded mass of nerves or blood vessels, especially the microscopic tuft of capillaries that is surrounded ny the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule of each kidney tubule. Plural is glomeruli
  28. Micturition
    The act of expelling urine from the urinary bladder. also called urination
  29. Retroperitoneal
    External to the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity.
  30. Kidney stone
    A solid mass, usually consisting of calcium phosphate crystals, that may form in any portion of the urinary tract. Also called a renal calculus
  31. Urethra
    The duct from the urinary bladder to the exterior of the body that conveys urine in females and urine and semen in males
  32. Renal pyramid
    A triangular structure in the renal medulla containing the straightsegments of renal tubules and the vasa recta