Oxygenation: Cardiovascular

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Oxygenation: Cardiovascular
2011-03-09 23:37:41

Chapter 36
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  1. Define endocardium:
    The inner most layer of the heart.
  2. Define Myocardium:
    The thick muscular middle layer of the heart
  3. Define Epicardium:
    • The outer layer of the heart.
    • Is a thin-walled sac that surrounds the heart and attached it to the tiaphragm and sternal wall of thorax.
  4. Define Automaticity:
    • The heart is capable of generating its own electrical impulse.
    • It is conducted through specialized conduction fibers.
  5. Define Systole:
    The contraction that is caused by the SA node impulse that spreads through the heart, which then causes the muscle contraction and pumping motion so blood is ejected from the ventricles.
  6. Define Diastole:
    The period between contractions of the heart. This extra time allows the heart muscle to relax and its chambers to fill with blood.
  7. Define Cardiac Output (CO)
    The amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute.
  8. The two functions of CO.
    • Heart Rate and Stroke Volume
    • SV:CO=HRxSV
  9. Three factors of Stroke Volume:
    • 1. Blood that enters the heart determines how much the heart can pump out.
    • 2. Depends on natural strength of the heart muscle.
    • 3. Depends on the resistance to blood flow in the circulartory system.
  10. Define Contractility:
    Stroke volume depends on the natrual strength of the heart muscle.
  11. Define Perfusion:
    • The flow of blood through the body tissue.
    • All living body cells must receive a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients.
  12. Normal newborns heart rate:
    130-160 beats/minute
  13. Normal Toddler and Preschooler heart rate:
    70-110 beats/minute
  14. Normal Child and Adolescent heart rate:
    60 to 80 beats/minute
  15. What is cholesterol:
    the primary component of the plaque (fatty lesion) that gradually occludes arteries.
  16. What is a myocardial Infarction (MI).
    • Blood flow decreases through the coronary arteries, the active muscle becomes hypoxic.
    • Unless blood flow is restored, portions of the heart can die.
    • Heart Attack
  17. Define Dysrhythmia:
    • An abnormality in heart rhythm.
    • Can be caused by damage to the heart muscle or donduction system, dimished coronary blood flow, decreased blood O2 levels, medication, alterations in serum electrolytes and overstretching of the heart muscle.
  18. Define Oncotic pressure
    Large protein molecules in the plasma pull the remaining fluid into the capillary. It is a spongelike action of the plasma proteins.
  19. What are Non-Modifiable Risk Factors in Coronary Heart Disease?
    • Family Hx of heart disease.
    • Man, or women after Menopause.
    • Increase age (risks increase with age)
    • African American ethnicity.
  20. What are Modifiable Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease?
    • High BP.
    • Cigarette/tobacco use.
    • High Blood Cholesterol.
    • Physical inactivity.
    • Obesity.
    • Diabetes.
    • Stress in daily living.
    • Hormon replacement
  21. Cholesterol is:
    The primary component of the plaque (fatty lesion) that gradually occludes arteries
  22. What are the two primary types of cholesterol?
    • High Density Lipoprotein- Good
    • Low Density Lipoprotein - Bad
  23. What is hypovolemic shock:
    Dehydration or hemorrhage causes a decrease in circulating volume. Because tissue perfusion depends on a sufficient volume of circulating blood, any decrease in volume can lead to tissue hypoxia.
  24. Define Ischemia
    • Condition of inadequate perfusion and its consequences.
    • Decreased tissue perfusion causes tissue hypoxia because less oxygen is available for metabolism.
    • Compromised blood flow provides few nutrients and contributes to abnormalities resulting from the buildup of waste products.
  25. Manifestations of Ischemia are:
    Pain and organ dysfunction.
  26. What is a thrombus:
    A solid mass or clot that can develop in arteries or veins and steadily increases in size until it occupies the entire lumen of the vein.
  27. What is an embolus?
    • They occur when a thrombus breaks loose and travels in the circulation.
    • Plaque or fat from bone breaks loose and travels in the circulation.
  28. What is angina?
    Chest pain associated with decreased coronary blood flow.
  29. What is intermittent claudication?
    Limb pain caused by poor blood flow.
  30. What is a Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)?
    Temporary decrease in blood flow to the brain, with brief disturbances in speech, vision, and mobility; confusion; and numbness felt on one half of the body.
  31. What is a stroke?
    Complete lack of blood flow to specfici areas of the brain causes tissue infarction.
  32. What is Phlebitis?
    Vein inflammation.
  33. What are Sequential Compression Devices (SCD's)?
    Sequentially compress various chambers within the extremity sleeve to promote venous return.
  34. What is Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X)
    A grouping of features related to glucose and fat metabolism that signifcantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease.
  35. Signs and symptoms of Cardiovascular dysfunction are:
    • New discomfort in the chest arms neck or jaw (if this is not a normal occurrence).
    • Rapid, irregular, or unusually slow heartbeat (if this is abnormal).
    • Dizziness or fainting
    • Severe pain and loss of normal color in an extremity (not causeds by exposure to cold).