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combined neoclassical with Romantic ideals
- "elegy written in a Country Churchyard
- Perfectionist, so didn't publish much
- Became something of a hermit
- formally educated
- 'the voice of Scotland'
- Poverty prevented a formal education but he was well read.
- wrote most of his poems in the Scottish dialect
- One of the most important
- originally apprenticed to be a painter; illustrated his own writings
- union of opposites "tradition" with new eyes, innocence and experience
Describe writing of Romantic Era.
Writers begin insisting that the world be viewed from the heart, not the mind.
Rulers of Hanover Dynasty
- George III
- George IV
- William IV
- went mad in 1811
- government was ruled by a regent, his eldest son
- Called the Regency Period
- second longest reign of a British monarch so far (59 years)
- was George, Prince of Wales
- Regent for his father 1811-1820
- Brother of George IV
- Old and weak, but an amiable king
- Left no legitimate children
- Died one month after his niece, Victoria, came of age, avoiding another regency
What did the weakness of kings provide?
The weaknesses of these three kings helped enhance the prime ministers who were chosen by the strongest party in Parliament
What is Romanticism?
- writers reacting strongly to the events of their time, especially the revolutions
- write with a perspective that focused on nature and the common people
- just like the French Revolutionaries, Romantic writers discarded what governed the 18th century writers
- Named romantic era because of a resurgence of interest in the medieval romances- imaginary tales of adventure written in one of Roman dialects
- Not only literature, but also the arts
- -beethoven, shubert= music
- -Turner= painting
- William Wordsworth
- Samuel Coleridge
- George Gordon, Lord Byron
- Percy Bysshe Shelley
- John Keats
William Wordsworth & Samuel Coleridge
- Collaborated together on lyrical ballads
- The preface explained the poetic principles they followed. Poetry is "the spontaneous over flow of personal feelings."
Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Keats
- Came of age during the Napoleonic era
- Rebelled against conservatism
- Died abroad at young ages
- Did not break with the past as much
- Came in 3 types
- -Gothic (Mary Shelley)
- -Novel of manners (Jane Austen)
- -Historical Romance (imaginative works of fiction built around real people or historical events)
Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus
- Gothic Novel
- -one branch of the Romantic movement
- -often set in medieval society
- -Contains supernatural occurences
- -created to evoke terror in readers
- -created to show the dark side of human nature
- -Main protagonist is egocentric: Victor Frankenstein
- -Gothic novels are regarded as the precursors to modern mystery and science fiction
- -often written by women
Women of the Romantic Era (esp. gothic writers)
- -women were uncommon writers of the time
- -possibly provided a way for women to address feminist issues and disadv. they face
- -also a way for women to present a safe image of their hidden desires
Mystery and Science Fiction
Mystery= uses suspense to create terror; logic replaces need for provable fact
Science Fiction= uses the discoveries in science and technology; some provable scientific facts are incorporated.