Anatomy & Physiology II

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Strongwill19
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71966
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Anatomy & Physiology II
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2011-03-09 23:06:41
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Urinary system
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Chapter 26: The Urinary System
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  1. Urine leaves the urinary bladder through the
    urethra

    (See Urethra and Fig. 26.21)
  2. Which of the following structures are found in the renal cortex?
    distal convoluted tubules

    (See Fig. 26.5 and The Nephron: Parts of the Nephron)
  3. Fenestrations are associated with the
    glomerulus

    (See The Filtration Membrane)
  4. Urine contains
    waste products of metabolism

    (See Overview of Kidney Functions)
  5. The renal pelvis
    drains into the ureter

    (See Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys)
  6. The kidneys help control blood pressure by the secretion of
    renin

    (See Hormonal Regulation of Tubular Reabsorption and Tubular Secretion: Renin-Angiotensisn-Aldosterone system)
  7. Sodium is moved out of the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule and into the interstitial fluid by the process of
    active transport

    (See Reabsorption and Secretion in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule: Fig. 26.13)
  8. The outer layer of the three layers of tissue that surround the kidney is the
    renal fascia

    (See External Anatomy of the Kidneys)
  9. In renal interstitial fluid
    occurs in the glomerulus

    (See Glomerular Filtration)
  10. The loop of Henle is associated with
    reabsorption

    (See Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle)
  11. A function of the kidney is to
    regulate blood ionic composition

    (See Overview of Kidney Functions)
  12. Which of the following molecules cannot pass the filtration membranes in the kidneys?
    large proteins

    (See The Filtration Membrane)
  13. The innermost layer of the three layers of tissue that protect the kidney is the
    renal capsule

    (See External Anatomy of the Kidneys)
  14. The renal papillae contain papillary ducts which empty into the
    minor calyces

    (See Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys)
  15. Reabsorption is the movement of molecules from the _____ into the _____ .
    renal tubules, peritubular capillaries

    (See Fig. 26.11)
  16. Very little water reabsorption occurs in the
    thick ascending loop of Henle

    (See Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle)
  17. Sodium ions move through the apical membranes of principal cells of the collecting duct by
    diffusion

    (See Reabsorption and Secretion in the Late Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Duct)
  18. Glomerular filtrate is produced as a result of
    blood hydrostatic pressure

    (See Net Filtration Pressure)
  19. The external opening of the urinary system is the
    external urethral orifice

    (See Urethra and Fig. 26.22)
  20. The kidneys secrete the hormone erythropoietin, which functions to
    control the rate of red blood cell production

    (See Overview of Kidney Functions)
  21. Which of the following accurately represents the pathway of fluid through a juxtamedullary nephron?
    proximal convoluted tubule, descending loop of Henle, ascending loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule

    (See Fig. 26.5)
  22. Urine reaches the urinary bladder through the
    ureter

    (See Ureters)
  23. The nephron has two parts. They are the
    renal corpuscle and renal tubule

    (See The Nephron: Parts of a Nephron)
  24. The visceral layer of Bowman's capsule is covered with specialized cells called
    podocytes

    (See The Nephron: Histology of the Nephron and Collecting Duct)
  25. Increased sodium and chloride ion concentrations in the interstitial fluid of the renal medulla is the result of
    countercurrent mechanism

    (See Formation of Concentrated urine: Countercurrent Multiplication)
  26. Externally, the kidney is protected and supported by connective tissue and
    adipose tissue

    (See External Anatomy of the Kidneys)
  27. Renal blood pressure remains fairly constant due to the function of the
    juxtaglomerular apparatus

    (See The Nephron: Histology of the Nephron and Collecting Tubule)
  28. Chloride ions are actively reabsorbed from the
    thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle

    (See Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle)
  29. A patient has symptoms that include painful, frequent urination, and low back pain. Further examination reveals inflammation of the mucosa and submucosa of the urinary bladder. The patient has
    cystitis

    (See Urinary Tract Infections: Cystitis)
  30. Potassium ions are actively secreted into the tubular fluid of the
    distal convoluted tubule

    (See Reabsorption and Secretion in the Late Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Duct)
  31. A patient is brought to the emergency room. Blood evaluation reveals high levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, and potassium. Family members report failure to urinate, even though the patient
    consumed a fairly large quantity of water during the day. The patient is experiencing
    renal failure

    (See Renal Failure)
  32. Most reabsorption occurs in the
    proximal convoluted tubule

    (See Reabsorption and Secretion in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule)
  33. The process by which water is reabsorbed by following solutes when they are reabsorbed is called
    obligatory water reabsorption

    (See Principles of Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion: Transport Mechanisms)
  34. Which layer of the endothelial-capsular membrane prevents red blood cells from leaving the blood, but allows all components of the blood plasma to pass through?
    fenestrated endothelial cells

    (See The Filtration Membrane)
  35. In cortical nephrons, the
    renal corpuscle lies in the outer portion of the renal cortex

    (See Fig. 26.3)
  36. The proximal convoluted tubule is made up of
    cuboidal cells with many microvilli

    (See The Nephron: Histology of the Nephron and Collecting Tubule)
  37. Normally, net filtration pressure in the kidney is about
    10 mm Hg

    (See Net Filtration Pressure)
  38. In the process of renal autoregulation, when the juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes less vasoconstrictor substance,
    the afferent arterioles dilate, increasing glomerular filtration rate

    (See Glomerular Filtration Rate)
  39. Which of the following chemicals is an enzyme secreted by the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    renin

    (See Hormonal Regulation of Tubular Reabsorption and Tubular Secretion: Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System0
  40. Glucose enters the proximal convoluted tubule cells by _____ and
    leaves the cell into the interstitial fluid by _____.
    sodium ion-glucose symporters, facilitated diffusion

    (See Reabsorption and Secretion in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule)
  41. The main region of the kidney tubule that is impermeable to water
    is the
    thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle

    (See Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle)
  42. The main regulator of facultative water reabsorption is
    antidiuretic hormone

    (See Hormonal Regulation of Tubular Reabsorption and Tubular Secretion: Antidiuretic Hormone
  43. In the embryo, the first kidney to form is the
    pronephros

    (See Development of the Urinary System)
  44. Which of the following occurs by the action of Na+ symporters in the apical membranes of tubule cells?
    both reabsorption of glucose by proximal convoluted tubule cells and reabsorption of amino acids by proximal convoluted tubule cells

    (See Reabsorption and Secretion in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule)
  45. Ions, but not water, are reabsorbed from the tubular fluid in the ascending loop of Henle. Therefore, the osmolarity of the fluid entering the distal convoluted tubule is
    less than blood

    (See Formation of Dilute Urine)
  46. The most important solutes that contribute to the high osmolarity of the interstitial fluid in the renal medulla are
    sodium ions, chloride ions, and urea

    (See Formation of Concentrated Urine: Countercurrent Multiplication)
  47. During the micturition reflex ___________.
    parasympathetic fibers conduct impulses from the spinal cord that cause contraction of the detrusor muscle.

    See Urinary Bladder: The Micturition Reflex
  48. The only place in the kidney where filtration occurs is in the
    renal corpuscle

    (See Glomerular Filtration)
  49. Creatinine is produced by the breakdown of creatine phosphate in the skeletal muscles. It is useful for determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because it is
    filtered but not reabsorbed or secreted

    (See Blood Tests)
  50. The urinary bladder in the female lies inferior to the
    uterus

    (See Urinary Bladder)
  51. The color of urine is due to the presence of a chemical called
    urochrome

    (See Table 26.5)
  52. The normal kidneys are only about _____ as effective at the age of 70 as they are at the age of 40.
    50 percent

    (See Aging and the Urinary System)
  53. What is the function of A?
    protect the kidney from trauma and hold it firmly in place within the abdominal cavity

    (see External Anatomy of the Kidneys)
  54. Which vessel carries blood to the glomerulus?
    B

    (See Blood and Nerve Supply of the Kidneys)
  55. What type of nephron is indicated by A?
    cortical nephron

    (See The Nephron: Parts of a Nephron)
  56. Which nephron type enables the kidney to excrete very dilute or very concentrated urine?
    B

    (See The Nephron: Parts of a Nephron)
  57. Which cells constitute the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    A and B

    (See The Nephron: Histology and The Nephron and Collecting Duct)

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