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What are epitiops?
Binding site of antibodies
What are antibodies?
Molecules that identify antigens (intruders)
What are antigens?
Foreign bodies that elicit the immune system
What are the primary lymphocytes?
- T cells (60%) (developed in bone marrow and matures in the thymus)
- B cells
- NK cells
What are the 4 types of T-cells?
- Cytotoxic (CD8 killer T cells) kill cancer
- Helper (CD4)
- Suppressor- shut down killer T cells after is does it's job
- Memory- stays in body for second encounter (make T cells)
What are the 3 types of B cells?
- Naïve B cells
- Plasma cells (effector B)
- Memory B cells- stay for second encounter (make plasma cells)
What are the 5 classes of antibodies?
- IgA -mucus, tears, saliva, breast milk
- IgD- activates B cell
- IgE- binds to mast cells (causes release of histamine)
- IgG- found in plasma and involved in long term immunity
- IgM- found on the surface of the B cell
What is a monoclonal antibody?
One specific antibody for one antigen
What is a polyclonal antibody?
Mixture of different antibodies with different specificity
What is DNA sequencing?
Reading of the DNA code in orderly or sequential manner
What are the 3 steps DNA sequencing?
- Generating different length of DNA fragments of DNA we want to sequence
- Group them according to last base reading
- Separating them with gel Electrophoresis
What are the 2 ways to sequence DNA?
- Maxam and Gilbert- chemical sequencing
- Sanger- chain termination (dideoxynucleotides (lack normal -OH group))
What does the Sanger method require?
- Multiple copies of single strand template DNA
- DNA polymerase
- A 'pool' of normal nucleotides
What are the toxin proteins that bacteria make called?
What is a virus?
An obligatory parasite that can't reproduce itself without a living host
What does a virus particle consist of?
- Outer protein shell (capsid)
- Inner core (either DNA or RNA)
What is a virus' life cycle?
What are the 3 major genes of a virus?
- Replication Gene
- Coat Protein Gene
- Lysis Gene
What are plasmids?
Naked DNA molecules
What are the 2 ways DNA replicate in plasmids?
- Rolling Circle
What are replicons?
Nucleic acids in charge of controlling their own replication
What are transposons?
Jumping genes without the ability of self replicating
What are the two essential parts of transposons?
- Terminal Inverted Repeats
- A gene for transposition
What is a retrosposon?
Jumping genes that replicate through an RNA intermediate
What are the 2 types of repetitive sequences generated by retrosposons?
- Short interspersed sequences (SINS)
- Long interspersed sequences (LINS)
What are selfish DNA?
DNA that have properties of retroposons, SINS and LINS
What is Junk DNA?
Selfish DNA are disabled of replication or movement
What are inteins?
Intervening sequences of protein that are spliced out during the making of functional protein
What do exteins do?
Make the final functional protein
What are the type of molecular fingerprinting?
- DNA fingerprinting- PCR and RFLP
- Protein and Enzymes in body fluids- using antibody
What are the different ways to perform RFLP?
- Restriction Enzyme Digest
- Southern Blotting
- Visualizing by autoradiograph
How does PCR work?
Amplifying DNA fragments by showing hyper variable region and discriminate by probe
What is a mutation?
A mistake in the cell genetic material
How is the wiled type DNA altered?
What is Silent mutation?
- No change in amino acid
- No effect in phenotype
What is a missense mutation?
Mutation changing the amino acid, making bad protein or not effect as the original
What is a nonsense mutation?
- Introducing a stop codon
- No protein is formed by the ribosome
What are the 2 ways to combat mutation?
- Reversion- healing from mutation (rare)
- DNA Repair Mechanism
- -restoring damaged DNA
- -mismatch repair- one base pair is removed and replaced with correct one
- -excision repair- long DNA molecule is removed and replaced
Which type of cell is heritable and which is non-hertiable?
- Germline cell- heritable
- Somatic Cell- not heritable
What are the 2 types of disorders humans can have?
- Autosomal chromosome disorder
- Sex-linked disorders
What is gene therapy?
Replacing defected gene with a good copy of the gene
What are the methods of delivery for gene therapy?
- Particle Bombardment
What is carcenogenesis?
Any cancer causing agent
What are the two major types of genes that cause cancer when mutated?
- Tumor Suppressor genes- Protect from cancer when not mutated
- Proto-oncogenes- needed for normal cell division
What is codon usage?
Preference of specific codon from group of codons making the same amino acid
What is a transgenic organism/
Have a foreign gene inserted into their genetic make-up
What is genetic engineering?
Manipulating genes in crop plants and animals for benefit of us
What are the two methods to get genes into plants?
What is gene pharming
A technique used to make transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals
What is a way to detect genes in transformed organisms?
Report genes that indicate the engineered gene is delivered to its target
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