physiological psych exam 2

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physiological psych exam 2
2011-03-09 23:40:36

everything else for exam 2
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  1. How the brain processes images backward
    • What you see on the left gets processed by the right side of both eyes and gets processed in the right side of the brain
    • opposite for things you see on the right
  2. sound wave
    vibrations in the air that are being compressed and decompressed
  3. amplitude
    the height of the sound wave
  4. intensity
    • determined by the amplitude
    • determines the loudness of a sound in decibels (dB)
  5. frequency
    • the speed and distance between sound waves
    • determines pitch which is measured in hertz (Hz)
  6. transducing
    • the process in which sound is converted from vibrations to electrical signals to the brain
    • vibrations from the ear drum activate the basilar membrane which then activate nearby hair cells and starts action potentials
  7. tonotopical organization
    • when things are organized according to different pitches of sound
    • basilar membrane and primary auditory cortex
    • for example: the base of the basilar membrane reacts to high pitched sounds and the tip reacts to low pitched sounds
  8. angular gyrus
    • naming seen objects
    • organized between the language areas and the visual cortex
  9. arcuate fasciculus
    the bundle of fibers that connect wernicke's area to broca's area
  10. oderant receptors
    all oderant recptors are g-protein receptors
  11. dermatomes
    • the body is organized into horizontal levels
    • each specific level sends information to a specific region of the spinal cord when activated
  12. mosquito bites and itch
    the immune system releases histamine which causes blood vessels to dilate (redness and swelling)
  13. proprioception
    • knowing where the body and its parts are in relation to space
    • this happens on a subconscious level (you don't think it)
  14. pain
    an unpleasent physical sensation associated with tissue damage or dysfunction
  15. physiological pain
    • nocioceptive
    • normal response to painful stimuli
    • example: broken bone
  16. neuropathic pain
    • intractable
    • constant pain in response to tissue injury or nerve damage
    • example: shingles
  17. nocioception
    the perception of pain
  18. nociceptor
    • receptor for any kind of pain
    • on free nerve endings
  19. analgesia
    • diminishes the presence of pain
    • novacain
  20. anesthesia
    • absence of all sensory perception
    • laughing gas
  21. a∂ fiber
    • myelinated fiber
    • notices quick and sharp pain
  22. c fiber
    • unmyelinated fiber
    • for slow, dull, pr chronic pain
  23. neuromuscular junction
    • the area where motoneurons meet muscle fibers
    • ACh acts as the neurotransmitter
  24. local anasthetic
    • used in specific areas on the body
    • inhibits action potentials by blocking sodium channels
  25. opiate narcotics
    blocks transmissions of pain signals to the brain
  26. COX
    the enzyme that produces prostaglandins which stimulate pain fibers
  27. regulatory motivation
    • motivation for survival
    • controlled by the hypothalamus
    • need for thirst, food, and constant temperature
  28. nonregulatory
    • not needed for survival
    • controlled by the frontal cortex and part of the hypothalamus
    • strongly influenced by external sources
    • sexual behavior, parental behavior social needs
  29. homeostasis
    • the bodies need to maintain internal physiological processes within critical ranges
    • example: 8 hrs of sleep, 98 degree body temp., sensory stimulation
  30. osmotic thirst
    cell fluid level decreases and blood is more concentrated
  31. hypovolemic thirst
    • when blood volume decreases
    • usually common in blood loss victims
  32. sexual determination
    • genotypic sex determines gonadal sex which determines phenotypic sex
    • if there is a problem at any stage, it results in the opposite gender being developed
  33. sexual determination process step 1
    • gonads start out as an indifferent sex (have both ducts)
    • if there is an sry hormone present it creates testes
    • if there is no sry hormone present it creates ovaries
  34. wolfian ducts
    male gonads
  35. mullarian ducts
    female gonads
  36. sexual determination process step 2
    in males the testes secrete an anti mullerian hormane which regresses mullerian ducts and develops wolfian ducts
  37. sexual determination process step 3
    phenotypic sex is determined
  38. masculinization
    • expressing male behavior
    • example: spatial ability
  39. feminization
    • expressing feminine behavior
    • example: verbal fluency
  40. demasculinization
    lack of male brain and behavior in a male
  41. defeminization
    lack of female brain and behavior in a female
  42. modern theory of sexual determination
    • both gender processes are initiated by gonadal hormones
    • development of female parts is now not the default