Study Notes Ch3-4

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Study Notes Ch3-4
2011-03-10 00:21:55

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  1. What is a compound?

    A. a mixture of chemicals and elements
    B. anything that has mass and takes up space
    C. a combination of two or more elements
    C. a combination of two or more elements
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Anything that has mass and takes up space is ________.
  3. Elements that are shiny, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity, and make up most of the periodic table are __________.
  4. The ________ is the paritcle in the nucleus of the atom that carries a positve charge and is counted to identify the atomic number.
  5. A chemical formula is written to indicate the makeup of a compoud. What is the ratio of sulfur atoms to oxygen atoms in SO2?
  6. A ________ can change shape and volume
  7. A ______ has a different shape but the same volume in any container.
  8. A _______ has a definte shape and volume.
  9. How does water vapor in air form clouds?
    A. melting
    B. condensation
    C. evaporation
    D. sublimation
    C. evaporation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. How do you compute the mass number of an atom?
    number of protons + number of neutrons
  11. What are the three states of matter?
    • solid
    • liquid
    • gas
  12. Why does water with ice stay the same temperature until all the ice is melted?
    the thermal energy is going into melting the ice rather than heating the water. This causes the water to stay the same temperature until all the ice is melted and the thermal energy is going into the water.
  13. Metal
    All elements to the left of the zigzag line
  14. Nonmetal
    all elements to the right of the zigzag line
  15. Metalloid
    All elements on the zigzag line with the exception of Aluminum
  16. Describe two types of vaporization
    1. vaporization that takes place below the surfave of a liquid is called boiling. When liquid boils, bubbles form within the liquid and rise to the surface. The temperature at which water boils is called the boiling point. The boiling point of water is 100o C.

    2. Vaporization that takes place at the surface of a liquid is called evaporation. Evaporation which occurs at temperatures below the boiling point. This is how puddles dry up.
  17. Three changes of state
    • Melting- solid---> Liquid
    • Vaporization- liquid ---> gas
    • condensation- gas ---> liquid
    • Sublimation- solid---> gas
  18. What are the two properties of matter that determine its state?
    • motion of the particles
    • strength of the attraction
  19. What is an isotope?
    Two or more atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
  20. what are protons
    positively charged particles in the atom
  21. what are electrons
    negatively charged particles in the atom
  22. groups
    verticle columns
  23. periods
    horizantal rows
  24. mixtures
    two or more substances that do not combine
  25. heterogeneous
    a mixture in which two different materials can be easily distiguished
  26. homogeneous
    a mixture in which substances are uniformly spread out can't tell the difference
  27. solids
    definate shape and volume
  28. liquids
    definate volume not shape
  29. gas
    no definate shape or volume
  30. melting
    solid to liquid
  31. freezing
    liquid to solid
  32. vaporization
    liquid to gas
  33. condensation
    gas to liquid