Fluid Electrolyte & Acid-Base Balance

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Fluid Electrolyte & Acid-Base Balance
2011-03-10 00:48:34

Chapter 37
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  1. What is Intracellular fluid?
    Fluid located within the cell.
  2. What is Extracellular Fluid?
    Comprises all the fluid outside the cell
  3. What is Intravascular Fluid?
    ECF include this fluid the fluid inside the blood and lymphatic vessels.
  4. What is Interstitial Fluid?
    The fluid between the cells.
  5. What are baroreceptors?
    Stretch receptors, known as pressure receptors that are located in major arteries and veins that monitor vascular volume.
  6. What is Osmolarity?
    The proportion of dissolved particles (solute) in a volume of fluid.
  7. What is Osmolality?
    The concentration of dissolved substances in given weight of fluid rather than in a given volume.
  8. What are Electrolytes?
    Chemical compounds that partially dissociate (separate) in solution into separate particles.
  9. What are ions?
    Separated particlas that carry electrical charges.
  10. What are Cations?
    Positively charged ions
  11. What are anions?
    Negatively charged ions.
  12. What is milliequivalent?
    Electrolyte concentrations are expressed in terms of their combining power, or the ability of cations to combine with anions, rather than by their absolute weight in solution. The measure of chemical activity.
  13. What is Diffusion?
    The movement of a solvent or solutes (molecules) from an area of higher solvent or solute concentration to an area of lower solvent or solute concentration.
  14. What is Osmosis?
    The movement of a fluid through a semipermeable membrane.
  15. What is hyperosmolar?
    Osmosis can occur if a semipermeable membrane separating two fluid compartments is permeable to water and if one compartment contains concentration of a dissolved substance.
  16. What is Hypoosmolar?
    Osmosis can occur if a semipermeable membrane separating two fluid compartments is permeable to water and if one compartment contains less than the other compartment
  17. What is Active Transport?
    The process by which ions and other molecules are moved across membranes from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration.
  18. What is Filtration?
    Involves the transfer of water and dissolved substances through a permeable membrane from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure.
  19. What is Osmotic Pressure?
    The force of attraction for water by undissolved particles, helps to keep fluid within blood vessels, opposing net flow outward.
  20. What is Tonicity?
    Refers to a fluid's effect on cell size.
  21. What is Hypotonic?
    Solution that has a concentraiton of solute that is less than that of blood plasma.
  22. What is Hypertonic?
    Solution that has a concetration of a solute is greater than that of a blood plasma.
  23. What is Acid?
    Any substance that can donate free H+ ions to a solutions.
  24. What is Base (Alkali)?
    Any substance that can decrease [H+] in a solution.
  25. What are buffers
    Substances that help to prevent large changes in pH by absorbing or releasing H+ ions.