Purpose: helped reduce morbidity and mortality from surgery and wound care
Purpose of what?
Joseph Lister is known as?
He is known as the father of aseptic technique
Any tiny, usually microscopic, entity capable of carrying on living processes
Infection prevention and control
It consists of the implementation of policies and procedures in hospitals and other health care facilities to minimize the spread of health care-associated or community-acquired infections to patients and other staff members
Absence of pathogenic microorganisms
Categories of asepsis?
Medical asepsis and surgical asepsis
It consists of techniques that inhibit the growth and spread of pathogenic microorganisms.
Medical asepsis is also known as?
Known as clean technique
Also known as?
Destroys all microorganisms and their spores
Surgical asepsis also known as?
Also known as?
Reproductive cell of some microorganisms, such as fungi or protozoa
What elements are necessary for infection to occur?
1. infectious agent- a pathogen 2. reservoir � where the pathogen can grow 3. exit route from reservoir 4. method or vehicle of transportation, such as exudates, feces, air droplets, hands, and needles 5. entrance through skin, mucous lining, or mouth 6. host- another person or animal
Elements for what?
Use of a chemical that can be applied to objects to destroy microorganisms
A substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms- may be used on humans
Different shapes of bacteria?
Shapes � round, oblong, and spiral
Shapes of what?
Bacteria grown only in presence of oxygen
Bacteria grown only in the absence of oxygen
Hairlike projections that give motility to bacteria
Locomotion of the spirochete is achieved by?
It is achieved by wiggling motion involving the entire cell body
Done by who?
Characteristics of spores?
High degree of resistance to heat and disinfectants. Impervious to the usual laboratory staining methods
Characteristics of what?
Thick, sticky, slimy substance � envelopes seem to form around bacteria
When do capsules form?
They form when the environment is unfavorable; it is believed that the formation may be a defensive mechanism to protect the bacteria
What contributes to the development of multidrug resistance?
Capsule formation contributes to that
Contributes to what?
What are the five common disease-producing bacteria?
Streptococci, staphylococci, diplococci, bacilli, and spirilla
How are bacterial infections transmitted from person to person?
Transmitted by direct contact, inhalation of droplet nuclei, indirect contact with articles contaminated with the pathogen and through ingestion of contaminated food and drink
What is transmitted all these ways?
Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus
How is rocky mountain spotted fever transmitted?
Transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick
What type of spores are able to live in the soil for many years? (hint: anthrax)
B. anthracis can live in that environment
In what environment?
Small� known agent to cause disease. Not complete cells but are composed of either RNA or DNA
What became available in 1941?
Electron microscope made available then which helped with learning about viruses
When was it available?
How do viruses gain entrance to the body?
Entrance through: respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or broken skin resulting from an animal bit, mosquito or hypodermic needle
What does it mean that viral infections are self-limiting/
It means that they run a given course, and recovery usually occurs
Viral infection which is almost always fatal
The common cold is cause by?
It is caused by a virus
How are viruses classified?
Classified according to the human diseases they cause or by the characteristics of a specific group
What is classified this way?
What infections are the most common disease found in humans?
Fungal (mycotic) infections are
Mycotic infections are diseases caused by?
It is caused by yeasts and molds?
What is caused by them?
In children what is the most frequent site affected by fungal infections?
The scalp is most frequent site in children
Most frequent site for what?
Single-celled animals; in some form, they exist everywhere in nature
Any natural habitat of a microorganism that promotes growth and reproductions
Person or animal who does not become ill but harbors and spreads an organism, causing disease in others
What are measures taken to reduce reservoirs of infection?
Bathing, dressing changes, properly bag contaminated articles and contaminated needles and sharps, keep bedside unit clean, keep bottle solutions closed and away, make sure surgical wounds clean, and empty and dispose of drainage bottles and bags
All this done for what?
What are exit routes for pathogens in humans?
Gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems,; tissue; blood; and wounds
Means by which microorganisms are carried about and transported to the next host, once they have left the reservoir
Condition of being soiled, stained, touched by, or otherwise exposed to harmful agents.
Living vehicle (means by which microorganisms are carried about and transported)
Inanimate � nonliving vehicle (means by which microorganisms are carried about and transported)
What are some common fomites?
Computers, medical records and charts, stethoscopes, thermometers, bandage scissors, and used tissues, drinking glasses, needles, and soiled dressing.
Examples of what?
Indirect method of transmission
Transmission by this kind of common contact with a fomite or vector
What is the first line of defense on humans?
The skin is and that is why it should be kept intact, lubricated, and clean
The skin is what?
Organism in which another, usually parasitic, organism is nourished and harbored
Susceptibility to an infection is defined by?
It is defined by the amount of resistance shown to the pathogen
What is defined by this?
What has proven effective in reducing susceptibility to infectious disease?
Immunizations have proven effective for this
Stages of an infectious process?
Incubation period, prodromal stage, illness stage (acute stage); and convalescence
Stages of what?
1st stage of infectious process � interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptoms
2nd stage of infectious process - interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms to more specific symptoms
Illness stage also known as?
Also known as?
3rd stage of infectious process- interval when patient manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection
4th stage of infectious process- interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear
No infection present
Localized symptoms such as pain and tenderness at the wound site
infection that affects the entire body instead of just a single organ or part. Potential to become fatal
Protective vascular reaction that delivers fluid, blood products, and nutrients to interstitial tissues in the are of an injury
Process of inflammation
Process neutralizes and eliminates pathogens or necrotic (dead) tissues and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissues
Process of what?
Signs of inflammation?
Signs: edema, rubor (redness), heat, pain or tenderness, and loss of function in the affected body part
Signs of what?
When inflammation becomes system what signs and symptoms develop?
Signs and symptoms: fever, leukocytosis, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and lymph node enlargement
When will one see these signs and symptoms?
When is inflammatory response triggered?
Triggered by physical agents, chemical agents, or microorganisms
What is triggered?
Examples of physical agent
Mechanical trauma, temperature extremes, and radiation
Examples of what?
Examples of chemical agents
Examples: external and internal irritants such as harsh poisons or gastric acid
Examples of what?
What are the normal defense mechanisms against infection?
People admitted to hospital and acquire an infection
Health care-associated infection
Criteria for HAI�s
Criteria: require that the infection manifests at least 48 hrs after hospitalization or contact with another health agency
Criteria for what?
Of or pertaining to a highly pathogenic or rapidly progressive condition
Growing outside the body
Exogenous infection caused by?
It is caused by microorganisms from another person
What is caused by?
Growing within the body
Endogenous infection caused by?
Caused by the patient�s own normal microorganisms, which become altered and overgrow or are transferred from one body site to another
What is caused by it?
HAI�s are most commonly transmitted by?
Most commonly transmitted by direct contact between health care personnel and patients or from patient to patient
What is most commonly transmitted by?
Beginning in the fall of 2008 CMMC no longer did what?
They no longer reimburse hospitals for catheter-associated urinary tract infections and bloodstream infections
Who and since when?
Centers for medicare and Medicaid services
Centers for disease control and prevention
Who recommends the use of standard precautions?
CDC recommends this
What is the purpose for isolation precautions recommended by CDC?
The goal of these guidelines is to interrupt the chain of infection and reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens and other potentially infectious materials from moist body substances.
What guidelines and recommended by who?
Standard precautions include?
Hand hygiene, gloves, mask, eye protection, face shield, gown and being careful around sharp needs and other instruments with bodily fluids
Included in what?
How long does one need to wash their hands for?
Wash it for 15 to 30 seconds using hospital approved soap
When standard precautions are not followed there is a high risk of what?
There is a high risk of health care acquired infections or infectious disease among patients with this is not followed
When what is not followed?
What advice does CDC have regarding gloves?
They say to wear them only once, and place them in the appropriate waste containers, change it if contaminated even if not done with patient, and perform hand hygiene after removing them
Removing what? And who gave these advice?
What are the purposes of wearing gowns?
Protect your clothing from being soiled, protection against infectious microorganisms possibly given off by the patient, protection of a patient whose immune system is inadequate
Purpose of what?
What type of patients does one care for that needs to wear gowns?
Patients with diseases characterized by heavy drainage or exudates, infectious and acute diarrhea, other gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory disorders, skin wounds or burns, and urinary disorders is when we need to wear this
When mask is correctly applied it will fit how?
It will fit snugly below your chin and securely over your nose and mouth, and the top edge will fit below your eyeglasses if you wear them
A mask if worn for what reasons?
Work to protect the wearer form inhaling microorganisms that travel on airborne droplets for short distances or that remain suspended in the air for longer periods, or if splashing should occur, to prevent inhaling pathogens, to discourage the wearer from touching the mouth, nose, or eye and from transmitting infectious material
Reasons for what?
CDC recommends what guidelines for handling isolation linen?
Guidelines: Place soiled linen in a laundry bag in the patient�s room, treat all linen as though it is infectious, linen requires less handling if it is placed in a bag that is soluble in hot water; however, it is often necessary to do it because it punctures or tears easily
Guidelines for what and recommended by who?
An infection control practice that involves placing a bag of contaminated items into another, clean bag that is held outside an isolation room by other personnel
The CDC issued isolation guidelines includes what?
It included standard precautions, which contains two tiers of approach
First tier of isolation guidelines
Also known as?
Precautions designed to care for all patients in health care facilities regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infectiousness
Second tier of isolation guidelines
Condenses the disease-specific and categories approach to isolation into new transmission categories: airborne, droplet, and contact precautions
What is the name of this?
What are the basic principles regardless of which isolation technique it is, that need to be followed?
Basic principles: perform thorough hand hygiene when in and out of room, understand the disease process, dispose of contaminated equipment properly and effeectlibley and if pt needs to be transported protect everyone that is on the path
Basic principles of what?
Private rooms used for airborne illness isolation has what type of room?
Negative-pressure airflow that prevents infectious particulates from flowing out of the closed environment
What type of room?
Private rooms used for highly susceptible patients such as transplant recipients have what type of room?
Have positive-pressure airflow which prevents organism to enter the room
What type of room?
When should one suspect the presence of pulmonary TB in any patient?
Suspect it when pt has respiratory symptoms lasting longer than 3 weeks, fatigue, unexplained weight loss, dyspnea, fever, night sweats, and hemoptysis (a cough that can be productive of blood)
Pts with known or suspected TB should be in what type of room?
Should be in negative-pressure isolation room
When one has what?
National institute for occupational safety and Health
Consists of maintaining the absence of all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from an object
Antiseptics also known as?
Also known as?
Removal of foreign materials, such as soil and organic material, from objects
Steps for cleaning an object?
Rinse contaminated object with cold running water to remove organic water, wash with soap and warm water, rinse object thoroughly, use brush to remove dirt, rince object in warm water, dry object and prepare for disinfection. Consider the use of brush gloves and sink contaminated and clean it
Steps for what?
Used to destroy microorganisms
Solution used to clean disinfection?
Disinfectants or bactericidal solutions
Name of what?
Refers to methods used to kill all microorganisms, including spores
What are the different types of sterilization methods?
Methods: physical and chemical
The type of sterilization method used depends on what?
Depends on: type of microorganisms; how many microorganism present; type of article in need of cleaning
What depends on this?
Pertaining to the study of the occurrence, distribution, and causes of disease in humankind