Bowel Elimination

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Bowel Elimination
2011-03-10 01:49:20

Chapter 42
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  1. What is Peristalisis?
    Propels the intestinal contents along the entire length of the small and large intestines.
  2. What is Defecation Reflex?
    • When stool distends the rectum, parasympathetic afferent nerve fibers in the sacral segment of the spinal cord are stimulated, causing contraction of the descending and sigmoid colon, rectum and anus and relaxation of the internal anal sphincter.
    • Response sequence is a sacral reflex, not under voluntary control.
  3. What is Valsalva Maneuver?
    Defecation actions that assisted by taking a deep breath agasint a closed glottis, contracting the abdominal muscles (increases intra abdominal pressure) and contracting the pelvic floor.
  4. Define Meconium?
    Newborns usually evacuated stool within 24 to 48 hours after birth. Stool which is softly formed and dark greenish.
  5. What are Hemorrhoids:
    Enlarged or varicose veins in the anal canal
  6. What is a Stoma?
    • The proximal portion of the remaining bowel may be redirected through the abdominal wall to the abdominal skin surface.
    • The portion of intestine brought through the abdominal wall.
  7. What is constipation?
    the infrequent, sometimes painful passage of hard dry stool.
  8. What is ileostomy?
    When a portion of the ileum is used to make the stoma on the abdomen.
  9. What is Impaction?
    • The accumulatioin of hardened feces in the rectum.
    • Implies stool is stuck in the rectum.
  10. What is Diarrhea?
    Manifested by frequent evacuation of water stools.
  11. What is Flatus?
    The accumulation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract.
  12. What is Abdominal Distention?
    An accumulation of excessive amounts of flatus or liquid or solid intestinal contents.
  13. What is borborygmi?
    Stomach growl heard without the benefit of a stethscope.
  14. What is Paralytic ileus?
    Bowel sounds should gradually resume, indicating that normal peristalis has begun. A continued absence of bowel sounds beyond 72 hours may signal this condition.
  15. What is Guaiac or Hemoccult test?
    A test for hidden blood in the stool.
  16. What is Proctoscopy or Sigmoidoscopy?
    Examines the rectum and sigmoid colon.
  17. What is a Suppository?
    A medication prepared in a base (glycerin) for systemic or local effects.
  18. What is a Gastric lavage?
    Incases of accidental posioning or accidental or intentional drug overdose. The irrigation of the stomach.
  19. What is Gavage?
    For clients who cannot obtain adequate nourishment orally, liquid food can be instilled into the stomach through the nasogastric or nasointestinal tube.
  20. What is Ostomate?
    A recent ostomy.
  21. What is an enema?
    The cleansing of a protion of the large bowel by insertion of fluid rectally.
  22. What is colostomy?
    Opening of a part of the colon onto the abdominal skin surface.