FNS 28 Hypothalamus

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Author:
zf2010
ID:
72026
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FNS 28 Hypothalamus
Updated:
2011-03-10 02:33:55
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USUHS Hypothalamus
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FNS 28 Hypothalamus
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  1. Hypothalamus major functions
    Coordination of autonomic, behavioral and endocrine functions

    • Energy metabolism
    • Fluid balance
    • Temperature
    • Stress response
    • Reproduction
    • Immune response
  2. Circumventricular Organcs (CVOs)

    List and major function
    Lamina terminalis and subfornical organ

    Fluid balance (these structures have no blood brain barrier)
  3. Preoptic Area (POA)
    Think: Sex

    Mediates release of gonadotropic hormones from anterior hypophysis
  4. Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus
    • Within the preoptic region
    • Morphologically different in genders
  5. Supraoptic Region: components
    • Paraventricular & Supraoptic Nuclei
    • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus - role in circadian rhythms
  6. Tuberal region: components and major functions
    • Dorsomedial Nucleus - body weight regulation
    • Ventromedial Nucleus - Sexual behavior and feeding
    • Arcuate Nucleus - Neuroendocrine responses
  7. Mammillary Region: components and major functions
    • Posterior Hypothalamus - regulates autonomic responses
    • Mammillary Bodies - short term memory
  8. Lateral Hypothalamic Area (LHA) - location and function
    • Lateral to the fornix
    • Autonomic aspects of survival
  9. Hypothalamic Afferents
    • Retinohypothalamic Tract
    • Fornix
    • Stria Terminalis
    • Ventral Amygdalofugal Pathway
  10. Retino-Hypothalamic Tract (Path & Function)
    • Retina --> Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
    • Circadian Rhythm
  11. Fornix (Path & Function)
    • 1. Precommissural:
    • Hippocampus --> Septal Nuclei
    • Learning & Memory
    • 2. Postcommissural
    • Hippocampus --> Mammillary Nuclei
    • Memory
  12. Stria Terminalis (Path & Function)
    • Amygdala --> Hypothalamus
    • Emotion
  13. Ventral Amygdalofugal Pathway (Path & Function)
    • Pyriform Cortex & Amygdala --> Hypothalamus
    • Emotion
  14. Hypothalamic Reciprocals
    • Medial Forebrain Bundle
    • Dorsal Longitudinal Fasciculus
  15. Medial Forebrain Bundle (Path & Function)
    • Hypothalamus <--> Septal Nuclei (Emotion)
    • Hypothalamus <--> Reticular Formation (Arousal)
    • Hypothalamus <--> Spinal Cord (Autonomic NS)
  16. Dorsal Longitundinal Fasciculus (Path & Function)
    • Hypothalamus <--> Brain Stem
    • Autonomic NS
  17. Hypothalamic Efferents
    • Mammillothalamic Tract
    • Hypothalmo-Neurohypophysial Tract
    • Tuberohypophysial Tract
  18. Mammillothalamic Tract (Path & Function)
    • Mammillary Bodies --> Anterior Thalamic Nuc
    • Memory
  19. Hypothalamo-Neurohypophysial Tract (Path & Function)
    • Paraventricular & Supraoptic Nuclei (vasopressin & oxytocin --> Posterior Pituitary
    • Antidiuresis, Parturition
  20. Tuberohypophysial Tract (Path & Function)
    • Arcuate Nuc --> Hypophysial Portal System
    • Endocrine Functions
  21. Hypophysial Portal System Path
    • 1. Tuberhypophysial Tract fibers - secrete factors
    • 2. Primary Capillary Plexus (sinusoids) - absorb factors
    • 3. Secondary Capillary Plexus - deliver factors to: Anterior Pituitary
  22. Autonomic localization in Hypothalamus
    • Parasympathetic - anterior/medial
    • Sympathetic - lateral/posterior
  23. Emotion and the hypothalamus
    Initiates rage & flight/fight behavior
  24. Stress Response Path
    • 1. Cortex/Limbic - inform hypothalamus
    • 2. Hypothalamus - release Corticotropic-Releasing Factor to pituitary
    • 3. Pituitary - releases Adrenocorticotropic hormone to adrenal glands
    • 4. Adrenal output - synthesizes/releases glucocorticoids
  25. Supraoptic damage/lesion
    Diabetes insipidus - result of damage to antidiuretic hormone neurons

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