Vitamins

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
72043
Filename:
Vitamins
Updated:
2011-03-10 09:34:10
Tags:
vitamins USMLE biochem
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Description:
Vitamins, cofactors, and deficiencies
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  1. B1
    Other name
    Component of what?
    Cofactor for what?
    Deficiency
    • Thiamine
    • TPP
    • PDH, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, transketoase, branched-chain AA dehydrogenase
    • ATP depletion, Beriberi (dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuritis), Wernicke-Korsakoff (confused, clumy, cross-eyed, confabulating)
  2. B2
    Other name
    Component of what?
    Cofactor for what?
    Deficiency
    • Riboflavin
    • FAD
    • Redox reactions, TCA cycle
    • Cheilosis, corneal vascularization
  3. B3
    Other name
    Component of what?
    Cofactor for what?
    Derived from what?
    Deficiency
    Excess
    • Niacin
    • NAD, NADP
    • Redox reactions
    • Tryptophan (requires B6)
    • Glossitis, pellagra (diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia)
    • Facial flushing (HLD Tx)
  4. B5
    Other name
    Component of what?
    Cofactor for what?
    • Pantothenate
    • CoA and fatty acid synthase
    • Acyl transfers
  5. B6
    Other name
    Converted to?
    Cofactor for?
    Deficiency
    • Pyridoxine
    • Pyridoxal phosphate
    • Transamination (AST/ALT), decarboxylation, glycogen phosphorylase, heme synthesis
    • Convulsions, peripheral neuropathy (INH, OCs), sideroblastic anemia
  6. B12
    Other name
    Cofactor for what
    Deficiency
    • Cobalamin
    • Homocysteine methyltransferase (homocysteine to methionine) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (succinyl-CoA from FAs for TCA cycle)
    • Megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented PMNs, neurologic symptoms (use Schilling test to diagnose)
  7. Folic acid
    Converted to what?
    Cofactor for what?
    Used for what?
    Deficiency
    Deficiency caused by what?
    • THF
    • 1C transfer/methylation
    • Synthesis of nitrogenous bases (DNA/RNA)
    • Megaloblastic anemia
    • Phenytoin, MTX
  8. SAM
    Composed of what?
    Transfers what?
    Used for what reaction?
    • ATP + methionine
    • Transfers methyl units
    • conversion of methionine to homocysteine (also need THF and B12)
  9. Biotin
    Cofactor for what?
    Used in which reactions?
    • Carboxylation
    • Pyruvate carboxylase, ACoA carboxylase, Propionyl-CoA carboxylase
  10. Vitamin E deficiency
    Increased erythrocyte fragility
  11. Vitamin K
    Purpose
    Synthesized by?
    Deficiency?
    • Catalyzes gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues for clotting factors
    • Synthesized by intestinal flora
    • Neonatal hemorrhage

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