Biology Midterm

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Author:
dgeorg1
ID:
72049
Filename:
Biology Midterm
Updated:
2011-03-10 10:18:34
Tags:
biology molecular groups
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Description:
part 2 - Molecular groups
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  1. Carbohydrates
    • short term energy source
    • simple sugars --> complex polysaccharides
    • Storage (plant starches and glycogen)
    • Structure (cellulose)
  2. Lipids
    • Fats, oils, lipid-based components
    • phospholipids - foundation of cell membranes
    • Long term energy source
  3. Amino Acids (Proteins)
    Long chains of specific combinations of Amino acids
  4. Protein Function
    • Enzymes - increase rate of biological process
    • Structure & movement
  5. Nucleotides
    • comparatively small molecule composed of sugar phosphate and "nitrogenous base"
    • 1. Sugar molecule w 5 carbon atoms
    • 2. a nitrogenous base
    • 3. a phosphate group
  6. Nucleic Acid
    • Long chain of nucleotides
    • *Genetic code and protein synthesis
    • (Composes DNA and RNA)
  7. DNA
    • Most common form of Genetic information
    • 1. Deoxyribose
    • 2. Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
    • 3. Double Helix
    • 4. A - T, G - C
  8. RNA
    • Form of genetic info in some viruses
    • 1. ribose
    • 2. Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil
    • 3. Single strand
    • 4. A - U, G - C
  9. Genes
    DNA nucleotide sequences
  10. Protein Synthesis
    • Process of changing DNA code to "readable" RNA then to proteins
    • DNA --> transcription --> RNA --> translation --> Proteins
    • * Process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA (Thymine --> Uracil)
  11. Transcription
    • The information in DNA is transcribed into RNA
    • Eukaryotes typically have some post-transcription editing
  12. Genetic Code
    • 20 Amino Acids used to synthesize proteins
    • Each amino acid is encoded by one or more combinations of 3 nucleotides
    • * 64 possible combinations of 3 nucleotides

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