med surg GI

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Anonymous
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72135
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med surg GI
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2011-03-10 19:30:04
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med surg GI
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  1. Gi system is also known as?
    alimentary system
  2. where does digestion begin?
    mouth
  3. what enzyme produces salvary amylase, and breaks down cooked starches
  4. ptyalin
  5. once food is swallowed what happens?
    it is a bolus that is transported down the esophagus
  6. what relzxes to allow movement?
    esophagus
  7. 10 in long, hollow, muscular tube
    esophagus
  8. coordinated rhythmic contractions of muscles and pushes bolus through esophagus
    peristalsis
  9. the lower esophagus that relaxes and allows food to pass to stomach
    cardiac sphinter
  10. mechanically and chemically breaks down foods
    stomach
  11. j shaped
    stomach
  12. secretes gastric juices (HCL and pepinogen)
    stomach
  13. what is responsible for the begining breakdown of starch and protein
    pepsinogen
  14. what is secreted to protect stomach lining?
    mucus
  15. what secretes the intrinstic factor? why?
    stomach for b12 absorption, stimulates the HCL release
  16. mixed partially digested food and digestive enzymes, semiliquid
    chyme
  17. the chyme will not pass into the small intestine until what consistency?
    1mm
  18. how often does the stomach empty
    3-4 hrs
  19. what are the easiest to digest in order?
    carbs, protein and then fat
  20. 20-25 ft long, responsible for absorbing nutrients from chyme, secretes digestive enzyme and mucus for nutrient absorption
    small intestine
  21. 10-12 in long, absorbs calcium, iron and neutralizes acids in chyme
    duodenum
  22. an enlargement of the ducts from the liver and pancreas at the pnt where they enter the small intestinge. bile from the liver and secretions from the pancreas come through this to mix with food in the duodeum and aid in digestion particularly of fats
    ampulla of vater
  23. 8-10 ft long, absorbs fats protein and carbs
    jejunum
  24. distal 12 ft of small bowel, absorbs b12 and bile salts
    ileum
  25. chyme enters the colon thru where into where? and wehre does this all happen
    ileocecal valve into the cecum! large intestine
  26. 4-5 ft long
    colon
  27. absorbs water, electrolytes and bile salts
    colon
  28. last 5 in of colon
    rectum
  29. fish shaped, 6-8 in long, has endocrine and exocrine functions (3) groups of enzymes produced for exocrine
    pancreas
  30. the 3 exocrine enzymes produced?
    amylase, lipase and protease
  31. what is amylase?
    converts carbs to glucose
  32. what is lipase?
    aids in fat digestion
  33. what is protease?
    breaks down protein
  34. largest organ in RUQ
    liver
  35. produces and secrete bile, converts glucose to glycogen for storage and glycogen to glucose when sugar drops
    liver
  36. metabolizes hormones, break down nitrogenous waste to urea, amino acid to proteins
    liver
  37. produces heparin, stores vit b12 and fat soluable vitamins and detoxifies poisonous substances
    liver
  38. pear shaped attached undersurface of liver
    galbladder
  39. stores and concentrates bile until needed
    galbladder
  40. what forms the common bile duct?
    cycstic duct, hepatic duct, and pancreatic duct
  41. how much fiber should be ingested daily?
    30-35 g
  42. inflammation and ulceration in the mouth
    stomatits
  43. what is ordered for stomatits?
    topical anesthetics and analgesics
  44. what is the diet for stomatits?
    bland, soft or liquids
  45. should I and O be montored for stomatitis?
    YES!
  46. what does stomatitis damage?
    oral mucous membranes by irritants leads to infections
  47. enlarged tortuous veins caused by chronic obstruction of drainage from esophageal veins to portal veins
    esophageal varices
  48. what are esophageal varices prone to?
    ulceration and bleeding
  49. what can cause rupture of the varices?
    sneezing, coughing, vomitting
  50. medical treatment for esophageal varices
    sclerotherapy, esophageal ligation, and balloon tamponade
  51. surgical treatment for esophageal varices?
    portosystemic shunt(relieves pressure), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) its invasive and placed to bypass liver and relieve pressure in protal veins, done in xrat only for unstable clients
  52. rubber band or tie the O-ring on varix
    ligation
  53. castic substance injected into varix
    sclerotherapy
  54. periodically deflated to prevent necrosis, pt NPO and HOB 45 degree
    balloon tamponade
  55. sandostatin can be given to a pt with? avoid what?
    esophageal varices but avoid NSAIDS, aspirin and anticoagulants
  56. esophageal varices pt can be active?
    bedrest with very little stenuous activity, monitor v/s
  57. gastric secretion flow upward into esophagus, damagin tissues
    GERD
  58. inibility of lower esophagus sphincter to close
    GERD
  59. symptoms of GERD?
    belching, dysphagia, esophagistis, epigastric pain, heartburn, flatulence, melena, bleeding
  60. surgical treatment for GERD?
    fundolication
  61. meds for GERD?
    antacids, H2 repceptor antagonist, proton pump inhibitor, cytoprotective agents, GI motility agents
  62. diet for GERD?
    low fat, high protein, avoid caffeine and milk, pepermint, chocolate, licorice and spicy

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