what enzyme produces salvary amylase, and breaks down cooked starches
once food is swallowed what happens?
it is a bolus that is transported down the esophagus
what relzxes to allow movement?
10 in long, hollow, muscular tube
coordinated rhythmic contractions of muscles and pushes bolus through esophagus
the lower esophagus that relaxes and allows food to pass to stomach
mechanically and chemically breaks down foods
secretes gastric juices (HCL and pepinogen)
what is responsible for the begining breakdown of starch and protein
what is secreted to protect stomach lining?
what secretes the intrinstic factor? why?
stomach for b12 absorption, stimulates the HCL release
mixed partially digested food and digestive enzymes, semiliquid
the chyme will not pass into the small intestine until what consistency?
how often does the stomach empty
what are the easiest to digest in order?
carbs, protein and then fat
20-25 ft long, responsible for absorbing nutrients from chyme, secretes digestive enzyme and mucus for nutrient absorption
10-12 in long, absorbs calcium, iron and neutralizes acids in chyme
an enlargement of the ducts from the liver and pancreas at the pnt where they enter the small intestinge. bile from the liver and secretions from the pancreas come through this to mix with food in the duodeum and aid in digestion particularly of fats
ampulla of vater
8-10 ft long, absorbs fats protein and carbs
distal 12 ft of small bowel, absorbs b12 and bile salts
chyme enters the colon thru where into where? and wehre does this all happen
ileocecal valve into the cecum! large intestine
4-5 ft long
absorbs water, electrolytes and bile salts
last 5 in of colon
fish shaped, 6-8 in long, has endocrine and exocrine functions (3) groups of enzymes produced for exocrine
the 3 exocrine enzymes produced?
amylase, lipase and protease
what is amylase?
converts carbs to glucose
what is lipase?
aids in fat digestion
what is protease?
breaks down protein
largest organ in RUQ
produces and secrete bile, converts glucose to glycogen for storage and glycogen to glucose when sugar drops
metabolizes hormones, break down nitrogenous waste to urea, amino acid to proteins
produces heparin, stores vit b12 and fat soluable vitamins and detoxifies poisonous substances
pear shaped attached undersurface of liver
stores and concentrates bile until needed
what forms the common bile duct?
cycstic duct, hepatic duct, and pancreatic duct
how much fiber should be ingested daily?
inflammation and ulceration in the mouth
what is ordered for stomatits?
topical anesthetics and analgesics
what is the diet for stomatits?
bland, soft or liquids
should I and O be montored for stomatitis?
what does stomatitis damage?
oral mucous membranes by irritants leads to infections
enlarged tortuous veins caused by chronic obstruction of drainage from esophageal veins to portal veins
what are esophageal varices prone to?
ulceration and bleeding
what can cause rupture of the varices?
sneezing, coughing, vomitting
medical treatment for esophageal varices
sclerotherapy, esophageal ligation, and balloon tamponade
surgical treatment for esophageal varices?
portosystemic shunt(relieves pressure), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) its invasive and placed to bypass liver and relieve pressure in protal veins, done in xrat only for unstable clients
rubber band or tie the O-ring on varix
castic substance injected into varix
periodically deflated to prevent necrosis, pt NPO and HOB 45 degree
sandostatin can be given to a pt with? avoid what?
esophageal varices but avoid NSAIDS, aspirin and anticoagulants
esophageal varices pt can be active?
bedrest with very little stenuous activity, monitor v/s
gastric secretion flow upward into esophagus, damagin tissues