Psych Vocab chapter 9 & 10

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Psych Vocab chapter 9 & 10
2011-03-18 23:38:25

Learning:principles and applications
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  1. Classical Conditiong
    a learning procedure in which assocuations are made between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
  2. neutral stimulus
    a stimuls that does not initially any part of an unconditioned response
  3. unconditioned stimulus (US)
    an event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training
  4. unconditioned response (UR)
    an organism's automatic( or natural) reaction to a stimulus
  5. conditioned stimuls (CS)
    a once neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of trainging in which it has been paired with (occurred just before) an unconditioned stimulus
  6. Conditioned response (CR)
    the learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
  7. generalization
    responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
  8. discrimination
    the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
  9. extinction
    the gradual dissappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
  10. operant conditioning
    learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
  11. reinforcement
    stimulus or event that follows a response and increase the likelihood that the response will be repeated
  12. primary reinforcer
    stimulus that is naturally rewarding, such as food or water
  13. secondary reinforcer
    stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcer
  14. fixed-ratio schedule
    a pattern of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct reponses is required before reinforcement can be obtained
  15. variable-ratio schedule
    a pattern of reinforcement in whcih an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcemtn can be obtained
  16. fixed-interval schedule
    a pattern of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement
  17. variable-interval schedule
    a pattern of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement
  18. shaping
    technique in which the desired behavior is "molded" by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then requiring ever-closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward
  19. response chain
    learned reactions that follow one another in srquence, each reaction producing the signal for the next
  20. aversive control
    process of influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli
  21. negative reinforcement
    increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
  22. escape conditioning
    training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus
  23. avoidance conditioning
    training of an organism to respond so as to prevent the occurence of an unpleasant stimulus
  24. social learing
    process of altering behavior by observing and imitation the behavior of others
  25. cognitive learning
    form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and may result from observation or imitation
  26. cognitive map
    a mental picture of spatial relationships or relationships between events
  27. latent learning
    alteration of a behavioral tendency that is not demonstrated by an immediate, observable cange in behavior
  28. learned helplessness
    condition in which repreated attempts to contol a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable
  29. modeling
    learning by imitating others; copying behavior
  30. bhavior modification
    systematic application of learning principles to change people's actions and feelings
  31. token economy
    conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for values rewards
  32. memory
    the input, storage, and retreival of what has been learned or experienced
  33. encoding
    the transforming of information so the nervous system can process it.
  34. storage
    the process by which information is maintained over a period of time
  35. retreival
    the process of obtaining information that has been stored in the memory
  36. sensory memory
    very brief memory storage immediately following initial stimulation of a receptor
  37. short-term memory
    memory that is limited in capactiy to about seven items and in duration by the subject's active rehersal
  38. maintenance rehersal
    a system for remembering that involves repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
  39. chunking
    the process of grouping items to make them easier to remember
  40. semantic memory
    knowledge of language, including its rules, words, and meanings
  41. episodic memory
    chronological retention of the events of one's life
  42. declarative memory
    stored knowledge that can be called forth consciously as needed
  43. procedural memory
    permanent storage learned skills that does not require conscious recollection
  44. recognition
    memory retreival in which a person identifies an object, idea, or situation as one he or she has or has not experienced before
  45. recall
    memory retreival in which a person reconstructs perviously learned material
  46. reconstructive processes
    the alteration of a recalled memory that may be simplified, enriched, or distorted, depending on an individual's experiences, attitudes, or inferences
  47. confabulation
    the act of filling in memory gaps
  48. schemas
    conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world
  49. eidetic memory
    the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure
  50. decay
    fading away of memory over time
  51. interference
    blockage of a memory by previous or subsequent memories or loss of a retreival clue
  52. elaborative rehersal
    the linking of new information to material that is already known
  53. mnemonic devices
    techniques for using asoociations to memorize and retrieve information