PH Exam 2 Communicable Dx

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PH Exam 2 Communicable Dx
2011-03-21 22:33:25
Nursing PH

Communicable Disease
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  1. (book) List 6 Characteristics of an Infectious Agent
    • Infectivity
    • Pathogenicity
    • Virulence
    • Toxivity
    • Invasiveness
    • Antigenicity
  2. (book) Discuss Staph aureus
    • Sudden onset of N/V/D, cramps
    • All foods, esp foods in contact with dirty hands
  3. (book) Discuss Clostridium perfringens
    • Sudden onset of colic and D, maybe N
    • Inadequately heated meats or stews
    • Food contamined by feces
  4. (book) Discuss Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    • Watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps; N/V, fever, h/a
    • Raw or inadequately cooked seafood
  5. (book) Discuss Clostridium botulinum
    • CNS signs: blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth
    • Home-canned fruits and veggies not adequately heated
    • Honey
  6. Define Communicable Disease
    Illness caused by an infectious agent or that agents toxins and is transmitted from an infected person, animal, or inanimate object to a susceptible host
  7. List 3 Sides to Epidemiological Triangle
    • Host
    • Agent
    • Environment
  8. Define Agent
    • Cause of disease
    • Biological agents include bacteria, parasites, fungi, virus
  9. List 6 Characteristics of Agent
    • Infectivity
    • Pathogenicity
    • Virulence (severity)
    • Toxicity
    • Invasiveness
    • Antigenecity
  10. Define Host and List 3 Categories its determined by
    • Vulnerable organism
    • Susceptibility
    • Immunity status
    • Infection status
  11. Define Environment- Reservoir
    • Site where agent survives and multiplies
    • Inanimate: water, soil, food
    • Animate: human, nonhuman
  12. Define Direct Transmission
    • Immediate transfer of agent from infected host
    • Limited to distance of ~3 ft or less
  13. Define Indirect Transmission
    Transferred through inanimate objects or nonhuman animate carriers
  14. List Patterns of Transmission
    • Unidirectional (nonhuman to human)
    • Bidirectional (nonhuman to human to nonhuman)
    • Vertical
    • Horizonal (person to person)
    • Endogenous
    • Exogenous
  15. List vaccines contraindicated in Pregnancy
    • Varicella
    • Zoster
    • MMR
  16. Discuss Portals of Entry
    • Parenteral: has to have a break in skin
    • Skin: can break through skin
    • Mucous Membranes: lowered system of resistance
  17. Discuss Portals of Exit
    • Intestinal tract
    • Respiratory tract
    • Skin
  18. List things that block transmission
    • Immunity
    • Vaccines
    • Spray for bugs
    • Wear long sleeves
    • Don't go out in evening
  19. Define Natural and Artificial Immunity
    • Natural: body's innate response
    • Artificial: body's response purposely induced (vaccines)
  20. Define Passive and Active Immunity
    • Passive: antibodies transferred from another person or animal (breastfeeding)
    • Active: body develops antigens following exposure (after dx)
  21. Define Cross Immunity and Herd Immunity
    • Cross: antibodies to one dx protects from another dx
    • Herd: immunity among the majority protects thought w/o immunity- 80% pop
  22. Define Vaccination
    specific to artificially acquired active immunity
  23. Define Immunization
    • Broader term
    • Includes artificially acquired active AND passive immunity
  24. Discuss Live attenuated vaccines
    • Not for prego or immunocompromised
    • Contain live weakened (attenuated) microorganisms
    • Can multiply in the body
  25. Discuss Inactivated vaccines
    • Contain killed (inactived) microorganisms
    • Whole
    • Partial- parts of substance with other parts
  26. Define Prevention
    Reduce or eliminate exposure or susceptibility to a dx
  27. Define Control
    Reduce incidence or prevalence of a dx at one point in time
  28. Define Elimination
    Control of a dx w/in a specific geographical area (polio)
  29. Define Eradication
    Reduce incidence worldwide to zero (smallpox)
  30. Discuss Global Surveillance
    • Detection (emerging and reemerging dx)
    • Monitoring
    • Intervention guidance
    • Control evaluation
    • International travelers' advice
    • Transport and trade guidance
    • Bioterrorism defense
  31. List contemporary issues
    • Inc mobility
    • Ecologic instability
    • Economic instability
    • Inc animal to human transmissions
    • Emerging dx
    • Recurrent dx
    • Drug-resistant dx
  32. List 3 types of flu
    • Seasonal
    • Epidemic- more than usual
    • Pandemic- worldwide epidemic
  33. List what usually occurs with pandemic flu
    • A new subtype of influenza A virus is introduced into the human population
    • The virus causes serious illness in humans
    • The virus can spread easily from person to person in a sustained manner
  34. List General Interventions for flu
    • Educate populations on:
    • General S&S
    • Basic Preventative Measures: cough/ sneeze, handwashing, avoid touching eyes, nose or mouth, and isolation
    • Vaccination
  35. List Contraindications for Vaccinations
    • IM and LAIV
    • Allergy to eggs
    • Allergic rxn to seasonal flu vaccine
    • Guillian-Barre syndome
    • Mod to Severe ill
  36. List Contraindications for LAIV
    • < 2 years, > 50 years
    • Pregnant or breastfeeding
    • Weakened immune system
    • Children or adolescents on aspirin tx
    • In close contact with person with weakened immune system
  37. List Common Concerns (Dx) in Vaccine Education
    • Guillian-Barre Syndrome: paralysis
    • Thimerosal: autism