FNS 30 Basal Ganglia and Related Structures

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zf2010
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72186
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FNS 30 Basal Ganglia and Related Structures
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2011-03-10 22:59:50
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USUHS Basal Ganglia Related Structures
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FNS 30 Basal Ganglia and Related Structures
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  1. What are the "true" basal ganglia?
    • Caudate
    • Putamen
    • Globus Pallidus
    • Amygdala
  2. Corpus Striatum
    • Caudate
    • Putamen
    • Globus Pallidus
  3. Striatum
    • Caudate
    • Putamen
  4. Lentiform Nucleus
    • Putamen
    • Globus Pallidus
  5. What are the major functions of the basal ganglia?
    • Regulate somatic motor activity via thalamus
    • Sequence together basic movements
    • Motor learning/planning
    • Eye movement control
    • Emotions/motivations
  6. Which basal ganglia are the input nuclei and what is their function?
    • The striatum (caudate and putamen)
    • Recieve inputs from cerebral cortex
    • Project to other basal ganglia
  7. Which basal ganglia are the output nuclei and what is their function?
    • Medial Pallidal Segment, Substantia Nigra (Pars Reticulata)
    • Recieve input from striatum and intrinsic nuclei
    • Project to thalamus (VA and VLa)
  8. What are the intrinsic nuclei and why are they different?
    • Lateral Pallidal Segment (LPS)
    • Subthalamic Nucleus (STN)
    • communicate only with other basal ganglia nuclei
  9. What is the Direct Pathway and what is its function?
    • Striatum --> MPS/SNr
    • Facilitates movement via excitatory effect
    • Bypasses intrinsic nuclei
  10. What is the Indirect Pathway and what is its function?
    • Striatum --> intrinsic nuclei --> MPS/SNr
    • Suppresses movement via inhibitory effect
  11. What are the functions of spiny striatal neurons?
    What is anatomically distiguishable about them?
    • Recieve inputs to the striatum
    • Provide output from the striatum
    • Have dendritic spines
  12. What is the function of aspiny striatal neurons?
    What is anatomically distinguishable about them?
    • Modulate spiny striatal activity
    • Lack dendritic spines
  13. What is the neurotransmitter combination specific to the Direct Pathway?
    GABA/Substance P
  14. What is the neurotransmitter combination specific to the Indirect Pathway?
    GABA/Enkephalin
  15. What is the effect of dopamine in the basal ganglia?
    • Facilitates activation of the Direct Pathway
    • Suppresses activation of the Indirect Pathway
  16. What are corticostriate fibers?
    Where are they?
    • Cortical inputs to the basal ganglia
    • Internal and external capsules
  17. What are pallidothalamic fibers?
    Connections from the MPS to the thalamus

    • Ansa lenticularis - from lateral MPS
    • Lenticular Fasciculus - from medial MPS
  18. What is the Prerubral Field?
    Convergence of the lenticular fasciculus and ansa lenticularis ventral to the thalamus
  19. What is the Subthalamic Fasciculus?
    Connections between the Globus Pallidus and the Subthalamic Nucleus
  20. Examples of hypokinetic movement disorders
    • Bradykinesia
    • Hypokinesia
    • Akinesia
  21. Bradykinesia
    Movements are slow and difficult to initiate
  22. 1. Hypokinesia

    2. Akinesia
    1. Decreased movement

    2. Absence of movement
  23. Dyskinesia - definition and examples
    Abnormal involuntary movements

    • Resting Tremor
    • Dystonia
    • Athetosis
    • Chorea
    • Ballismus
    • Tics
  24. Resting Tremor
    • Rhythic, oscillating movements
    • Often goes away during voluntary movements
  25. Dystonia
    Sustained contractions
  26. Athetosis
    Slow, twisting or writhing movements
  27. Chorea
    Continuous, non-purposeful movements (jerky or fluid)
  28. Ballismus
    Large, flinging movements of proximal limb muscles
  29. Tics
    Fast, repetitive movement - patient feels urge to do so
  30. 1. Rigitiy
    2. Hypotonia
    1. Increased resistence to passive movement - often in hypokinetic disorders

    2. Decrease tone, resistance - sometime in hyperkinetic disorders
  31. 1. A lesion that favors the direct pathway...
    2. A lesion that favors the indirect pathway...
    • 1. Hyperkinetic disorder
    • 2. Hypokinetic disorder
  32. Parkinson's disease

    1. Cause
    2. Result
    3. Treatments
    • 1. Loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc
    • 2. Hypokinetic symptoms
    • 3. Dopamine precursors, agonists
  33. Huntington's disease

    1. Cause
    2. Result
    3. Treatments
    • 1. Progressive atrophy of striatum (especially GABA/enkephalin spiny neurons)
    • 2. Hyperkinetic symptoms (chorea), dementia
    • 3. Tetrabenzine and dopamine antagonists
  34. Ballism/Hemiballism

    1. Cause
    2. Result
    3. Treatments
    • 1. Usually vascular lesion of subthalamic nucleus
    • 2. Hyperkinetic signs (reduced indirect pathway) - ballismus
    • 3. Anti-dopaminergics

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