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What are the three difference muscle fiber types?
- fast twitch (IIb): fast glycolytic
- slow twitch (I): slow oxidative
- intermediate twitch (IIa): fast oxidative glycolytic
What are the three types of muscle fiber classification?
What is histochemical classification based off of?
- velocity of muscle fiber shortening
- acid inactivates myosin ATPase in fast fibers
- base inactivates mysoin ATPase in slow fibers
- (i don't really understand this)
What is biochemical classification based off of?
amount of enzymes in glycoltic and aerobic pathways
What is molecular classification based off of?
- type of myosin differentiated by protein composition of myosin
- 3 isoforms, slowest to fastest: MHCI, MHCIIa, MHCIIb
What are the three muscle fiber type characteristics?
What are some fiber type proportions (motor unit, type distribution)?
- all fiber types within a motor unit are the same type
- fiber type distribution varies- within muscles, within different regions of same muscle, between individuals
What is muscle strength?
peak force production
What is muscle endurance?
produce force over time
What percentage 1RM is 3-6 reps, 8-12 reps, and 16-30 reps?
- 3-6 reps: 85-95% 1RM
- 8-12 reps: 65-80% 1RM
- 16-30 reps: 40-60% 1RM
What are ways to measure muscle strength and endurance?
- dynanometer/tensiometry (hand grip, pinch grip, computerized dynamometry)
- field tests (bench press test, curl up test)
- functional tests (chair stand test)
What is progressive overload?
overload required for stength gains, once those gains are reached you reach a plateau
What are variables of resistance training?
load, repititions, sets, rest periods
What is the SAID principle?
- specific adaptations to imposed demands
- make things functional for patient (?)
What are the two main steps to developing a resistance exercise presscription?
- establish a goal based on individuals activities and fitness level
- establish the program variables
What are differenct types of goals for resistance training?
- strength (general and peak)
- muscule endurance
- motor performance (power, speed)
- tissue healing
What are the three main types of muscle activity?
- isometric (static)
- dynamic isotonic (constant and variable resistance)
Muscle setting and muscle strengthening are the two types of what muscle activity?
What are characteristics of muscle setting (isometric)?
- has no resistance, with little increase in strength
- may slow atrophy for neural inhibition
- maintains mobility of muscle fibers
- decreases spasm, pain and edema
- does not increase BP
- ex. quad sets
What are characteristics of muscle strengthening (isometric)?
- minimize atrophy in tendon repairs
- 30% of strength gains attainable with dynamic training
- strength gains specific to joint angles
- ex. push against a wall
- adverse effects- increase BP and use of valsalva
What are two types of dynamic isotonic muscle activity?
- constant resistance
- variable resistance
What are advantages and disadvantages of constant resistance (isotonic)?
- inexpensive (free weights)
- use other muscles to keep balance as well as exercising muscles
- mimics function
- DISADVANTAGES:load is limited to weakest pt in ROM
- safety considerations (need a spotter)
What are advantages and disadvantages of variable resistance (isotonic)?
- machines with cam, lever, pulley design
- vary resistance with muscle strength curve
- easier to learn and safer than free weights
- taxes muscles during full ROM (but no better strength gains)
- DISADVANTAGES:daunting set up and expensive
- equipment size isn't fitting for everyone
- less functional
Do you want training to be eccentric or concentrc for strength gains?
Both for maximal strength gains
What are advantages and disadvantages of training eccentrically?
- ADVANTAGES:can generate more force than can concentrically
- don't fatigue as quickly as concentric because of fewer motor units
- may enhance neural facilitation on concentric movement
- DISADVANTAGES:since it involves fewer muscle fibers it increases risk of muscle damage
What are advantages and disadvantages of isokinetic muscle activity?
- ADVANTAGES:variable resistance- taxes muscle throughout ROM
- speed selection-can train at sport specific velocity (although fastest speed setting isn't usually high enough)
- objective measure of strength through ROM
- DISADVANTAGES:expensive and big set up
- muscle power can't be improved because at a constant speed
- less functional
What is the basic prescription for strength for healthy untrained, trained, and deconditioned people?
- healthy untrained: 65-80% 1RM (8-12 rep)
- trained: >80% 1RM (<8 reps)
- deconditioned: 45-50% 1RM (20-25 reps)
How do you prescribe the number of sets for strength prescription in beginners and experienced?
- beginners: have gains with 1 set up to 3 months
- experienced: 2-3 sets with progression of load required
What is the general strength prescription for beginners?
- 8-12 reps
- 1-2 sets
- 1-2 minutes rest between sets
- ***2-10% increase in load when current load can be performed 2 reps over desired #
What is the general strength prescription for experienced pts?
- 4-6 reps (85-90% RM)
- 3 sets
- 2-3 min rest (replenish PCr system)
- variety of load and exercises to prevent overtraining
What is the purpose of including single and multi joint exercises?
- multi-joint: maximize strength gains and mimic functional activities
- single joint: prevent injury or used for rehab
What is the general progression of single and multi- joint exercises?
- 1st- multi joint exercises (and power)
- 2nd- single joint large muscle group exercises
- 3rd- single joint small muscle group exercises
What velocity is used in isotonic PRE programs in beginners and experienced?
- beginners: slow velocity
- experienced: moderate velocity
What velocity is used in isokinetic PRE programs?
moderate velocity produces the greatest strength increases (180-240'/sec)
What is the recommended frequency of strength training for beginners, intermediates, and advanced people?
- beginners: 2-3 alternating day/week for gain; 1-2 days/wk for maintainence
- intermediate: 2-3 alternating days/wk with increase
- advanced: 4-6 days/wk with increases in volume
When do you want to exhale in strength training?
What are the four phases in periodization?
- preparation phase (muscle hypertrophy)
- first transition (strength)
- competition phase (strength, power, muscle performance)
- 2nd transition/active recovery (strength maintainence)
What is the focus during the prepartion phase?
What is the focus during the first transition phase?
What is the focus during the competition phase?
strength, power, and muscle performance
What is the focus during the 2nd transition/active recovery phase?
What is general muscle power prescription
(activity, type, volume, rest, velocity, frequency, periodization)?
- muscle activity: isotonic constant resistance
- types of exercise: concentric, eccentric, multi-joint
- volume: 30-60% RM, 3-6 reps, 3-6 sets
- rest: 2-3 minute rest period
- velocity: fast as possible
- frequency: 2-4 times/wk
- periodization: must train for strength also
What is are plyometrics and what is the purpose?
- eccentric loading and immediate concentric
- utilize stretch reflex to augment muscle force contraction (rate of stretch is more important than length)
- implement in late stages of rehab- too soon can cause injury
What are some suggestions for the overload principle?
- bilateral exercise then unilateral
- cautiously increase the bench hieght
- increase number of repitions
What is the purpose of circuit training and characteristics of it?
- develops power and endurance
- series of isotonic resistance
- 15-30 seconds of rest inbetween
- 16-20 RM (50-60% RM)
- VO2max increase 4-8% over 8 weeks (which is less than than 15-20% increase from traditional training)
What is motor performance prescription a combination of?
- traditional strength exercises
- muscular power exercises
- short specific resisted exercises
What is general bodybuilding prescription
(activity, type, volume, rest, velocity, frequency)?
- activity: isotonic
- types: eccentric and concentric, single and multi jt
- volume: beginners 8-12 reps, 70-80% RM, 4 sets; experienced 1-12 reps, 70-100% RM, 4-6 sets
- rest: 1-1.5 min
- velocity: slow to moderate
- frequency: 2-3 alternating days/week, 4-6 for experienced
What is the purpose of rehabilitation prescription?
- tissue healing: increases blood flow to tissue, increases jt lubrication, decreases swelling and pain
- muscle endurance and strength
What are characteristics of PRE training in rehab?
- AAROM --> AROM --> resistance
- short arc isotonic --> full ROM
- supine/prone --> sitting
- limit progression to 2-10% load increase
- make it functional (SAID principle)
- overload system progressively for gains
Contraindications for PRE training?
- joint/muscle inflammation
- pain (excessive during exercises, or for over 24 hours)
- if ROM is contraindicated
What are risks and precautions of PRE training?
- if limb is immobilized move it slowly and avoid heavy objects
- if have osteoporosis progress slowly, low weight, avoid trunk flexion and rotation
- avoid maximum and complex lifts in adolescents
- careful with cardiac disease
- avoid overtraining, substitutions, and valsalva
What is general initial rehab prescription
(activity, type, volume, rest, velocity, frequency)?
- activity: isotonic or isometric
- type: eccentric and concentric, single and multi
- volume: 40-60% RM (16-30 reps), 1-3 sets
- rest: <1 min
- velocity: moderate
- frequency: beginner 3-4 x/wk, experience 4-6x/wk
What are some symptoms of overtraining?
- decrease in performance
- loss of body weight
- chronic fatigue
- increase number of infections
- increase HR and blood lactate levels in exercise
- physiological staleness
What are characteristics of actue muscle soreness?
- low oxygen blood flow, increase in lactic acid
- results in fatigue and burning
- active cool down quickens recovery
What are characteristics of delayed onset muscle soreness?
- 24-48 hours later, lasts 2-4 days
- more eccentric training
What does Vitamin E protect against?
cell damage after exercise
What are skeletal muscle adaptations from endurance training?
- contractile: increase velocity of shortening of type I fibers
- metabolic: increase enzymes in fat and CHO metabolism
- structural: increase capillary density and mitochondrial density
What are skeletal muscle adaptations from PRE?
- hypertrophy of type I and II (increase more) fibers
- hyperplasia increase in muscle fiber number
- no change in capillary density
- mitochondrial density decreases
- increase mysoin ATPase activity, intramuscular ATP stores, PCr systems, glycogen stores, aerobic enzymes
- increase in strength, lean body mass, resting metabolic rate, bone mineral density, connective tissue strength
What are characteristics of hypertrophy?
- elevated 36-48 hours after exercise
- 6 weeks PRE required before hypertrophy
Why do increases of strength occur in PRE training?
- muscle fiber hypertrophy
- neural adaptations- increase number of units firing and the rate they fire, inhibtion of GTO, lower other neural inhibitory reflexes, improve synchronization of motor unit firing
What is the timeline for why strength gains occur?
- weeks 1-6: primary from neural adaptations
- weeks >6: primary from hypertrophy
What are some cardiorespiratory adaptations from PRE?
- RHR and RBP don't change
- ventricle wall thickness of heart increases
What occurs with aerobic training and moderate PRE program?
- gains in muscle strength and aerobic capacity
- overtraining- minimal or no additional gains
What occurs with heavy resistance PRE program and aerobic training?
gains in muscle stength and VO2max occur but are compromised
What occurs with sarcopenia?
- loss of muscle mass from:
- decrease in # of muscle fibers or selective atrophy of type II fibers from decreased use which causes them to be replaced with fat or fibrous tissue
What is the rate of muscle mass loss dependent on in elderly people?
- activity level
- don't use it, lose it
What are some muscle responses to immobilization?
- greater atrophy in type I fibers nad antigravity muscles
- protein synthesis decreases in 24 hours
- protein degradation begins in 3 days
- greatest amount of muscle mass occurs in 1st 3 weeks
- greater atrophy when the muscle is immobilized in shortened position
What position of immobilization causes greatest muscle atrophy?
When does the greatest lost of muscle mass occur?
within the 1st 3 weeks
What are the 4 most suspeptible antigravity muscles that experience atrophy in immobilization?
- soleus and VM (large % ST fibers and 1 jt muscle)
- biceps femoris and gastroc (predominantly ST fibers and > 1 jt)
How long does recovery of muscle mass take?
2-3x's long than it took for atrophy to occur
What occurs with aging?
decrease in muscle strength, hypertrophy and muscle power
What is the general strength prescription for elderly?
- concentric and eccentric, multi and single jt
- machines then free weights
- 1-3 sets
- 60-80% RM (work to 80%)
- 8-12 reps
- 1-2 min rest
What is the general power prescription for elderly?
- 1-3 sets
- 40-60% 1RM
- 6-10 reps
- high velocity
- type II atrophy occured so want to rehab contraction speed
What are important considerations in resistance training for youth?
- avoid repetitive high loads till after puberty
- want a load that can be done >8 reps
- don't want severe muscle fatigue
- want to overload by increase in reps then by the load
What is the general strength perscription for youth?
- frequency: 2x/wk
- duration: 8-10 exercises, 8-12 reps a set
- rest:1-2 min between sets, want to alternate rest days and training days
What are the strength gains of youth and what are they mostly due to?
- 30-74% strength gain in 8-20 week program
- probably mainly due to neural adaptation
What is the gender difference in absolute muscle strength?
men are stronger
What is the gender difference in relative muscle strength?
- minumum difference in lower extremities
- moderate difference in upper extremities
What is the gender difference in relative gains in strength?