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What quad muscle is a hip flexor and knee extensor?
What 3 quad muscles are involved in knee extension?
- Vastus lateralis
- Vastus intermedius
- Vastus medialis
What plane of motion do hip extension and knee flexion occur?
What exercises can strengthen the quads?
Squat, lunge, leg press, leg extension
What are the muscles of the hamstring?
- Bicep femoris
What function(s) do the hamstring muscles perform?
Kneeextension and hip flexion
What exercises strengthen the hamstring muscles?
Muscles of the gluteals
- Gluteus maximus
- Gluteus minimus
- Gluteus medius
Function of the gluteals
Extension, rotation, abduction
Stretch for gluteals
Squats, stairs, jump rope, side leg lifts, dirty dog, side plank w bent nee
Fast twitch muscle fibers
- Contract rapidly
- Fatigue quickly
- Anaerobic system
- Strength & power
Slow twitch muscle fibers
- Contract slowly
- Less forcefully
- Fatique resistant
Can Muscle fibers be changed from one type to another
Steps of muscle contraction
Interaction of actin & myosin > shortening of individual sarcomeres > shortening of associated muscle fibers
What happens to body when exercise in the heat
- Stroke volume and venous return decrease
- HR increases
- Increase sweat production
How much fluid should you drink when exercising in heat
7-10 oz every 10-20 min
How does altitude affect the body
Increases heart rate and respiratory rate
What should you do if exercising in the heat
Decrease exercise intensity
When doing a bicep curl what is the action at the elbow?
Force in bicep overcomes forces of weight of arm, dumbell and gravity to produce concentric action at the elbow
In bicep curl what muscle is the Agonist and antagonist?
Bicep is agonist and tricep is antagonist
What is a synergist muscle?
Assist, stabilize or co-contract
Muscle contracts but no visable movement
Shortening of muscle & overcomes opposing force
Lengthening (external force>contractible)
2005 dietary guidelines physical activity guidelines to manage body weight recommends
60 min mod-vig intensity most days of the week
Physical activity guidelines to reduce risk of disease
30 min mod-int, most days of the week
Physical activity to increase benefits
Increase intensity to vigorous or increase duration
Physical activity guidelines for weight loss
60-90 min most days of the week
1600 daily caloric daily intake is recommended for what population
2200 caloric intake is recommended for what population
Active teen girls, women and sedentary men
2800 caloric daily intake is recommended for what population
Active teen boys, men and very active women
Carbohydrates are broken down into what
What is glycogen used for
Energy source during exercise
What are the benefits of complex carbs?
Take longer to break down and provide fiber, vitamins and minerals
- = calories
- Also fruit and milk
The optimal speed of contraction while lifting is ______ second(s) for concentric action and ______ second(s) for eccentric contraction.
What responds to muscle tension by causing the muscle to relax?
Golgi tendon organ
Sensory receptors inside muscle tendon junction
Which of Newtons Laws says a heavier weight requires more muscle force?
Law of inertia
Force acting on a body=body's mass x acceleration
Law of acceleration
Momentum can increase by increasing mass or velocity
How can you reduce the impact and reaction forces while running or jumping?
Lower the impact, participate on better flooring
Law of impact and reaction forces
What are the cardiorespiratory adaptation from regular aerobic training?
- Lower HR
- Lower relative HR
- Increase VO2max as SV increases
- Increase O2 extraction
- increase fatty acid oxidation at submax intensity
- Increase glycogen in trained muscles
- Decrease lactic acid production
- Increase tolerance to lactic acid
Sheet or band of fibrous tissue forms attachment for muscles and organs
Attaches muscles to bone
Connect bones to bones
Padding between bones at a joint
Neuromuscular adaptations to regular resistance training
- Increase body mass
- Increase tissue strength
- Decrease risk of joint injury
- Increase bone mineral density
Component of stretch reflex
Discontinuation of a muscle contraction occurs when
- Neural impulse stops
- Muscle fibers run out of ATP
- Build up of laxtic acid
- Filanents cannot contract any further
Protein filaments within the myofibril that generates muscle contraction by sliding past one another
Actin & myosin
What is the functional contracting unit of muscle cells?
Sever repeating sarcomeres along length of muscle make up myofibrils
A step aerobic class is 7 METS, what is the oxygen consumption?
7 METS x 3.5= 24.5 mL/kg/min
Typical resting metabolic rate for women and for men
- 1200 cal for women
- 1500 cal for men
Body's minimum daily energy requirement for normal function
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
1 MET = _____ mL/kg/min
Energy system used after 20 min of exercise
Fatty acid oxidation
Energy system used in long duration, sub anaerobic threshold activities, longer than 3 minutes
Which energy system 1-3 min
Increase intesity, decrease duration 1-3 min
Which energy system is used in all out exertion for 6-10 seconds
Increase intensity, short duration, <10 sec to fatigue
Fatty acids and glucose are used to produce
Energy source used to drive muscle contraction
ATP is manufactured by the _____ inside the muscle fiber (cell)
If you want to lose 5 pounds in 1 month, how many calories do you have to creTe a deficit?
5 x 3500= 17500
If exercising at altitude, what can you expect to change?
A. Max HR
B. Arterior/venous oxygen differences
C. Hemoglobin saturation
D. Respiratory rate
- Take in less oxygen with each breath
Cardiac output is the product of what?
Stoke volume x HR
Bicep curls occurs in what plane of motion?
- (flexion and extension)
What happens at systole?
What do the alveoli do?
Location where O2 and CO2 are exchanfed between blood and air in lungs
Where is ATP produced
- (aerobic oxidation)
What is another name for a muscle cell?
What is the antagonist to the bicep?
What happens to the tricep when the bicep is contracting?
Define motor unit
Muscle fiber that innervates
How many vegetables in a 2000 calorie diet recommended on a daily basis?
Daily intake of 2200 calories is recommended for what population?
Active teens, women, sedenrary men
What happens to internal organs during exercise?
Blood is shunted away from organs like liver and kidneys to muscles that need it
Path of blood through the heart
Sup/inf vena cava > R atrium > tricuspid valve > R ventricles > pulmonary arteries> pulmonary veins > L atrium > bicuspid valve > L ventricle > aorta
When designing a program what are the 4 variables and what is the acronym?
- Mode (type)
Muscle spindles sense what
- Velosity of stretch
- (contrCt to save yourself)
Golgi tendon sense what
Thorasic spine rounded
What muscles are tight in kyphotic posture?
Pectoralis major, deltoids
What muscles need to be strengthened in a person with kyphotic posture?
Traps , lats, post delts
- Excess curvature of the low back
- ( weak abs and obliques)
Which energy system all out exertion ATP for 6-10 sec
Which energy system 1-2 min
Concentric contraction is
Shortening under tension
Eccentric contraction is
Stretching of muscle with no change in length
Bone is capable of adjusting to strength proportikn to amt of stress placed it
Bopne density will adjust strength proportionally to stress ( sfrength training)
Curvature of the spine
Anaerobic threshold occurs when
Excess build-up of lactic acid in the blood
Fatty acids not immediately used for ATP production are stored as
Which involuntary muscle response, when stimulated, causes a suddenly stretched muscle to respond with a contraction?
Flexion, lateral flexion and rotation of the trunk are all characteristics of which abdominal muscles?
Internal and external obliques
Rotator cuff muscles are comprised of
- Tres major
A condition marked by protruding buttocks and weak abdominals is referred to
Which muscle does not act concentrically during up phase of a push up
The 4 energy nutrients are
Carb, protein, fat, alcohol
Energy content for carbs, protein, fat and alcohol
4, 4, 9, 7
Recommended range for carb intake percentage