Ace quiz 1

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Ace quiz 1
2011-03-11 19:37:57
ace group

ace group fitness instructor manual ch 1-4
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  1. What quad muscle is a hip flexor and knee extensor?
    Rectus femoris
  2. What 3 quad muscles are involved in knee extension?
    • Vastus lateralis
    • Vastus intermedius
    • Vastus medialis
  3. What plane of motion do hip extension and knee flexion occur?
  4. What exercises can strengthen the quads?
    Squat, lunge, leg press, leg extension
  5. What are the muscles of the hamstring?
    • Bicep femoris
    • Semitendinosus
    • Semimembranosus
  6. What function(s) do the hamstring muscles perform?
    Kneeextension and hip flexion
  7. What exercises strengthen the hamstring muscles?
    • Squat
    • Ham curls
    • Lunges
  8. Muscles of the gluteals
    • Gluteus maximus
    • Gluteus minimus
    • Gluteus medius
  9. Function of the gluteals
    Extension, rotation, abduction
  10. Stretch for gluteals
    Squats, stairs, jump rope, side leg lifts, dirty dog, side plank w bent nee
  11. Fast twitch muscle fibers
    • Contract rapidly
    • Forcefully
    • Fatigue quickly
    • Anaerobic system
    • Strength & power
  12. Slow twitch muscle fibers
    • Contract slowly
    • Less forcefully
    • Fatique resistant
    • Aerobic
    • Endurance
  13. Can Muscle fibers be changed from one type to another
  14. Steps of muscle contraction
    Interaction of actin & myosin > shortening of individual sarcomeres > shortening of associated muscle fibers
  15. What happens to body when exercise in the heat
    • Stroke volume and venous return decrease
    • HR increases
    • Increase sweat production
  16. How much fluid should you drink when exercising in heat
    7-10 oz every 10-20 min
  17. How does altitude affect the body
    Increases heart rate and respiratory rate
  18. What should you do if exercising in the heat
    Decrease exercise intensity
  19. When doing a bicep curl what is the action at the elbow?
    Force in bicep overcomes forces of weight of arm, dumbell and gravity to produce concentric action at the elbow
  20. In bicep curl what muscle is the Agonist and antagonist?
    Bicep is agonist and tricep is antagonist
  21. What is a synergist muscle?
    Assist, stabilize or co-contract
  22. Isometric contraction
    Muscle contracts but no visable movement
  23. Shortening of muscle & overcomes opposing force
  24. Lengthening (external force>contractible)
  25. 2005 dietary guidelines physical activity guidelines to manage body weight recommends
    60 min mod-vig intensity most days of the week
  26. Physical activity guidelines to reduce risk of disease
    30 min mod-int, most days of the week
  27. Physical activity to increase benefits
    Increase intensity to vigorous or increase duration
  28. Physical activity guidelines for weight loss
    60-90 min most days of the week
  29. 1600 daily caloric daily intake is recommended for what population
  30. 2200 caloric intake is recommended for what population
    Active teen girls, women and sedentary men
  31. 2800 caloric daily intake is recommended for what population
    Active teen boys, men and very active women
  32. Carbohydrates are broken down into what
  33. What is glycogen used for
    Energy source during exercise
  34. What are the benefits of complex carbs?
    Take longer to break down and provide fiber, vitamins and minerals
  35. Simple carbs
    • = calories
    • Also fruit and milk
  36. The optimal speed of contraction while lifting is ______ second(s) for concentric action and ______ second(s) for eccentric contraction.
    • 1-2 sec
    • 2-4 sec

    Force-velocity relationship
  37. What responds to muscle tension by causing the muscle to relax?
    Golgi tendon organ

    Sensory receptors inside muscle tendon junction
  38. Which of Newtons Laws says a heavier weight requires more muscle force?
    Law of inertia
  39. Force acting on a body=body's mass x acceleration
    Law of acceleration

    Momentum can increase by increasing mass or velocity
  40. How can you reduce the impact and reaction forces while running or jumping?
    Lower the impact, participate on better flooring

    Law of impact and reaction forces
  41. What are the cardiorespiratory adaptation from regular aerobic training?
    • Lower HR
    • Lower relative HR
    • Increase VO2max as SV increases
    • Increase O2 extraction
    • increase fatty acid oxidation at submax intensity
    • Increase glycogen in trained muscles
    • Decrease lactic acid production
    • Increase tolerance to lactic acid
  42. Sheet or band of fibrous tissue forms attachment for muscles and organs
  43. Attaches muscles to bone
  44. Connect bones to bones
  45. Padding between bones at a joint
  46. Neuromuscular adaptations to regular resistance training
    • Increase body mass
    • Increase tissue strength
    • Decrease risk of joint injury
    • Increase bone mineral density
  47. Component of stretch reflex
    Muscle spindles
  48. Discontinuation of a muscle contraction occurs when
    • Neural impulse stops
    • Muscle fibers run out of ATP
    • Build up of laxtic acid
    • Filanents cannot contract any further
  49. Protein filaments within the myofibril that generates muscle contraction by sliding past one another
    Actin & myosin
  50. What is the functional contracting unit of muscle cells?

    Sever repeating sarcomeres along length of muscle make up myofibrils
  51. A step aerobic class is 7 METS, what is the oxygen consumption?
    7 METS x 3.5= 24.5 mL/kg/min
  52. Typical resting metabolic rate for women and for men
    • 1200 cal for women
    • 1500 cal for men
  53. Body's minimum daily energy requirement for normal function
    Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
  54. 1 MET = _____ mL/kg/min
  55. Energy system used after 20 min of exercise
    Fatty acid oxidation
  56. Energy system used in long duration, sub anaerobic threshold activities, longer than 3 minutes
    Aerobic glycolysis
  57. Which energy system 1-3 min
    Anaerobic glycolysis

    Increase intesity, decrease duration 1-3 min
  58. Which energy system is used in all out exertion for 6-10 seconds

    Increase intensity, short duration, <10 sec to fatigue
  59. Fatty acids and glucose are used to produce
  60. Energy source used to drive muscle contraction
  61. ATP is manufactured by the _____ inside the muscle fiber (cell)
  62. If you want to lose 5 pounds in 1 month, how many calories do you have to creTe a deficit?
    5 x 3500= 17500
  63. If exercising at altitude, what can you expect to change?
    A. Max HR
    B. Arterior/venous oxygen differences
    C. Hemoglobin saturation
    D. Respiratory rate
    • D
    • Take in less oxygen with each breath
  64. Cardiac output is the product of what?
    Stoke volume x HR
  65. Bicep curls occurs in what plane of motion?
    • Sagittal
    • (flexion and extension)
  66. What happens at systole?
  67. What do the alveoli do?
    Location where O2 and CO2 are exchanfed between blood and air in lungs
  68. Where is ATP produced
    • Mitrochondria
    • (aerobic oxidation)
  69. What is another name for a muscle cell?
  70. What is the antagonist to the bicep?
  71. What happens to the tricep when the bicep is contracting?
  72. Define motor unit
    Muscle fiber that innervates
  73. How many vegetables in a 2000 calorie diet recommended on a daily basis?
  74. Daily intake of 2200 calories is recommended for what population?
    Active teens, women, sedenrary men
  75. What happens to internal organs during exercise?
    Blood is shunted away from organs like liver and kidneys to muscles that need it
  76. Path of blood through the heart
    Sup/inf vena cava > R atrium > tricuspid valve > R ventricles > pulmonary arteries> pulmonary veins > L atrium > bicuspid valve > L ventricle > aorta
  77. When designing a program what are the 4 variables and what is the acronym?
    • FITT
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
    • Time
    • Mode (type)
  78. Muscle spindles sense what
    • Velosity of stretch
    • (contrCt to save yourself)
  79. Golgi tendon sense what
  80. Kyphotic posture
    Thorasic spine rounded
  81. What muscles are tight in kyphotic posture?
    Pectoralis major, deltoids
  82. What muscles need to be strengthened in a person with kyphotic posture?
    Traps , lats, post delts
  83. Mordotic posture
    • Excess curvature of the low back
    • ( weak abs and obliques)
  84. Which energy system all out exertion ATP for 6-10 sec
  85. Which energy system 1-2 min
    Anaerobic glycholosys
  86. Concentric contraction is
    Shortening under tension
  87. Eccentric contraction is
  88. Isometric is
    Stretching of muscle with no change in length
  89. Wolf's Law
    Bone is capable of adjusting to strength proportikn to amt of stress placed it

    Bopne density will adjust strength proportionally to stress ( sfrength training)
  90. Scholeosis
    Curvature of the spine
  91. Anaerobic threshold occurs when
    Excess build-up of lactic acid in the blood
  92. Fatty acids not immediately used for ATP production are stored as
    Adiposs tissue
  93. Which involuntary muscle response, when stimulated, causes a suddenly stretched muscle to respond with a contraction?
    Stretch reflex
  94. Flexion, lateral flexion and rotation of the trunk are all characteristics of which abdominal muscles?
    Internal and external obliques
  95. Rotator cuff muscles are comprised of
    • Supraspinosus
    • Infraspinosus
    • Tres major
    • Subscapulosus
    • (sits)
  96. A condition marked by protruding buttocks and weak abdominals is referred to
  97. Which muscle does not act concentrically during up phase of a push up
  98. The 4 energy nutrients are
    Carb, protein, fat, alcohol
  99. Energy content for carbs, protein, fat and alcohol
    4, 4, 9, 7
  100. Recommended range for carb intake percentage