EQUINE Diseases

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EQUINE Diseases
2011-03-12 15:23:55
Animal Diseases

Equine Diseases
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  1. Rabies
    • Virus!
    • zoonotic: yes
    • transmission: saliva from infected animal
    • incubation:15-50 days or longer
    • symptoms: extreme aggression; appears to be colic
    • prognosis: death
  2. Vesicular Stomatitis
    • Virus!
    • zoonotic: yes
    • transmission: direct contact and flies
    • incubation: 2-8 days
    • symptoms: ulcerous lesions in mouth and tongue, coronitis, fever 104-106
    • prognosis: good high morbidity, low mortality, resolution 10-14 days; no vaccine
  3. Equine Influenza
    • Virus!
    • zoonotic: no
    • transmission: direct contact with infected horse
    • incubation: 1-3 days
    • symptoms: lethargy, nasal discharge, dry cough, fever 107, rapid spread
    • prognosis: vaccines available, supportive care, rest 3 weeks minimum
  4. Eastern Equine Encephalitis/ Western Equine Encephalitis
    • Virus!
    • zoonotic: yes
    • transmission: mosquito
    • incubation: 5 days
    • symptoms: neurological depression, circling, head pushing
    • prognosis: good vaccines, non vaccinate death 2-3 days
  5. West Nile Virus
    • Virus!
    • zoonotic: yes
    • transmission: mosquito
    • incubation: 10-14 days
    • symptoms: neurological low grade fever depression, feed refusal
    • prognosis: vaccine available; 30-40% mortality non vaccinates
  6. Equine Infectious Anemia
    • Virus!
    • zoonotic: no
    • transmission: horse fly, direct contact
    • incubation: 10-25 days
    • symptoms: may be unapparent; may cause abortion
    • prognosis: no vaccine; good serology test; pos euthanized
  7. African Horse Sickness
    • Virus!
    • zoonotic: no
    • transmission: gnat (Culicoides)
    • incubation: 3-5 days
    • symptoms: fever 104-105, anorexia, legs spread, cough, dilated nostrils, swollen suborbital fossa
    • prognosis: no vaccine; death up to 90%
  8. Strangles (distemper)
    • bacteria!
    • zoonotic: no
    • transmission: infected horses or fomite, flies
    • incubation: 3-14 days
    • symptoms: fever 103-106, nasal discharge, depression, difficulty swallowing, abscesses of the lympth nodes, streptococcus
    • prognosis: god with proper treatment, flushing of abscesses
  9. Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
    • bacteria!
    • zoonotic: no
    • transmission: sexually, fomites
    • incubation: 10-14 days
    • symptoms: vaginal discharge, none in males, infected stallions may exhibit no signs. coccobacillus
    • prognosis: good
  10. Glanders
    • bacteria!
    • zoonotic: yes
    • transmission: ingestion of infected secretions
    • incubation: 3 days
    • symptoms: fever 106, 3 forms; nasal-discharge and ulcers, cutaneous: skin ulcers, pulmonary: ulcers in lungs, pseudomonas
    • prognosis: high morbidity, infected animals are destroyed, often fatal in humans
  11. Dourine
    • Protozoa!
    • zoonotic: no
    • transmission: sexually
    • incubation: weeks to months
    • symptoms: vaginal discharge from mares, urethral discharge in stallions, skin plaques 2-10cm, trypanosomal
    • prognosis: mortality 50-70%, infected animals destroyed
  12. Appropriate Vaccinations of horses are:
    rabies, EEE/WEE, WNV, tetanus
  13. Normal temperatures for horses are:
    Mare: 100

    Stallion: 99.7
  14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)
    • -Zoonotic, tick-borne disease, virus
    • -Potential bioterrorist threat
    • -Mostly in Turkey; spring and summer
    • -Horses are the chief reservoir
    • target: domesticated and wild animals, humans, Birds are highly resistant
    • -Animals typically carriers
    • Transmission: direct contact, ingestion, infected blood or tissues, unpasteurized milk, sexually
    • -Asymptomatic in animals although performance may drop
    • Human symptoms: nausea, myalgia, vomiting, fever, hemorrhages, increases in liver enzymes
    • Treatment: no vaccine; disinfection;
  15. Potomac Horse Fever
    • -Appropriate vacc. if live in MD, DE
    • -Not contagious; not zoonotic;
    • -infectious: can be passed to young
    • -Affects horses (can be reinfected) and other animal cases
    • -Gram-negative bacteria; Incubation 10-18 days; Parasite-reservoir host
    • -Found in manure, ingested or bitten, blood transmission
    • -Symptoms: decreased appetite, high fever, depression, abortions, anemia, dehydration, diarrhea, laminitis (doesn’t need to have all)
    • -Treatment: oxytetracycline, euthanization, consult a vet
  16. Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)
    • -RNA virus
    • -Transmission: aerosolized (Respiratory); venereal
    • -Symptoms: fever, edema, depression, lethargy, abortion, conjunctivitis, nasal discharge
    • -Treatment: isolation/separation; normally runs its course with no long-term effects; antibiotics to avoid secondary infection
    • -Stallions: antipyretics → avoid scrotal edema that causes infertility
    • -Can cause permanent carriers
    • -Vaccination: modified-live vaccine; must test negative first for EVA
    • -3 to 4 outbreaks a year; most common in racetracks
  17. Tetanus
    • -Bacteria caused by clostridium: spore forming, anaerobic, in soil; Lives well in necrotic anaerobic environment
    • -Caused by deep puncture wound with infected item
    • -Develops a highly poisonous neurotoxin
    • -Affects all mammals; Dogs, birds, cats: highly resistant
    • -Annual shot for horses
    • -10-14 days after puncture (neurotoxin is present)
    • -Humans and horses are highly susceptible
    • -Vaccines: tetanus shot or toxoid (prolonged exposure)
  18. Clostridium Botulina
    • -Most dangerous form
    • -Cannot swallow properly → breathing decreases
    • -Horse → extend neck, tail erect
    • -Striated muscle problems → diaphragm tightening
    • -In human cases → induce coma and treat toxoid