MS2013: First Aid Key Associations

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MS2013: First Aid Key Associations
2011-03-14 16:32:45
key associations first aid STEP

"Key Associations" from First Aid STEP prep
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  1. Actinic (solar) keratosis
    Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
  2. Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
    Cushings ulcer (increased ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
  3. Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
    Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
  4. Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon
    Skip lesions (Crohn's disease)
  5. Aneurysm, dissecting
  6. Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta
  7. Aortic aneurysm, ascending
    3° syphilis, Marfan's syndrome
  8. Atrophy of the mammillary bodies
    Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
  9. Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)
    Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
  10. Bacteria associated with stomach cancer
    H. pylori
  11. Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)
    Neisseria meningitdis
  12. Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)
    Group B streptococcus (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitdis (kids)
  13. Benign melanocytic nevus
    Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
  14. Bleeding disorder with Gplb deficiency
    Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand's factor)
  15. Brain tumor (adults)
    Supratentorial: mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma
  16. Brain tumor (kids)
    Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
  17. Breast cancer
    Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the United States, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)
  18. Breast mass
    • 1. Fibrocystic change
    • 2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
  19. Breast tumor (benign)
  20. Cardiac 1° tumor (kids)
  21. Cardiac manifestation of lupus
    Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting mitral)
  22. Cardiac tumor (adults)
    • 1. Metastasis
    • 2. 1° myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")
  23. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
    Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)
  24. Chronic arrhythmia
    Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
  25. Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)
    Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
  26. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
    DES exposure in utero
  27. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension
    21-hydroxylase deficiency
  28. Congenital cardiac anomaly
  29. Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
    Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
  30. Constrictive pericarditis in developing world
  31. Coronary artery involved in thrombosis
    LAD > RCA > LCA
  32. Cretinism
    Iodine defecit/hypothyroidism
  33. Cushing's syndrome
    • 1. Corticosteroid therapy
    • 2. Excess ACTH secretion by the pituitary
  34. Cyanosis (early; less common)
    Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
  35. Cyanosis (late; more common)
  36. Death in CML
    Blast crisis
  37. Death in SLE
    Lupus nephropathy
  38. Dementia
    • 1. Alzheimer's disease
    • 2. Multiple infarcts
  39. Demyelinating disease in young women
    Multiple sclerosis
  40. DIC
    Gram-negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma
  41. Dietary deficit
  42. Diverticulum in pharynx
    Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)
  43. Ejection click
    Aortic/pulmonic stenosis
  44. Esophageal cancer
    Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)
  45. Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)
    S. aureus, B. cereus
  46. Glomerulonephritis (adults)
    Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
  47. Gynecologic malignancy
    Endometrial carcinoma (most common)
  48. Heart murmur, congenital
    Mitral valve prolapse
  49. Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
    Mitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
  50. Helminth infection (U.S.)
    • 1. Enterobius vermicularis
    • 2. Ascaris lubricoides
  51. Hematoma--epidural
    Rupture of the middle meningeal artery (crescent shaped)
  52. Hematoma--subdural
    Rupture of bridging veins (trauma; lentiform shaped)
  53. Hemochromatosis
    Multiple blood transfusion or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes," and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
  54. Hepatocellular carcinoma
    Cirrhotic liver (often associated with hepatitis B and C)
  55. Hereditary bleeding disorder
    von Willebrand's disease
  56. Hereditary harmless jaundice
    Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
  57. HLA-B27
    Ankylosing spondylitis; Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis
  58. HLA-DR3 or -DR4
    Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
  59. Holosystolic murmur
    VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
  60. Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis
    Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
  61. Hypertension, 2°
    Renal disease
  62. Hypoparathyroidism
  63. Hypopituitarism
    Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)
  64. Infection 2° to blood transfusion
    Hepatitis C
  65. Kidney stones
    • 1. Calcium = radiopaque
    • 2. Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)
    • 3. Uric acid = radiolucent
  66. Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L to R becomes R to L)
    Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
  67. Liver disease
    Alcoholic cirrhosis
  68. Lysosomal storage disease
    Gaucher's disease
  69. Male cancer
    Prostatic carcinoma
  70. Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
    Hodgkin's lymphoma
  71. Malignant skin tumor
    Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
  72. Mental retardation
    • 1. Down syndrome
    • 2. Fragile X syndrome
  73. Metasteses to bone
    Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
  74. Metasteses to brain
    Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
  75. Metasteses to liver
    Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lung carcinomas
  76. Mitral valve stenosis
    Rheumatic heart disease
  77. Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease
  78. Myocarditis
    Coxsackie B
  79. Neoplasm (kids)
    • 1. ALL
    • 2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
  80. Nephrotic syndrome (adults)
    Membranous glomerulonephritis
  81. Nephrotic syndrome (kids)
    Minimal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
  82. Nosocomial pneumonia
    Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  83. Obstruction of male urinary tract
  84. Opening snap
    Mitral stenosis
  85. Opportunistic infection in AIDS
    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia
  86. Osteomyelitis
    S. aureus
  87. Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease patients
  88. Osteomeylitis with IV drug use
    Pseudomonas, S. aureus
  89. Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer
    Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
  90. Ovarian tumor (benign)
    Serous cystadenoma
  91. Ovarian tumor (malignant)
    Serous cystadenocarcinoma
  92. Pancreatitis (acute)
    Gallstones, alcohol
  93. Pancreatitis (chronic)
    Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
  94. Patient with ALL / CLL / AML / CML
    ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult > 60, CML: adult 35-50
  95. Pelvic inflammatory disease
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
  96. Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)
    CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)
  97. Pituitary tumor
    • 1. Prolactinoma
    • 2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
  98. Pituitary amenorrhea
    Turner syndrome (XO)
  99. Primary bone tumor (adults)
    Multiple myeloma
  100. Primary hyperaldosteronism
    Adenoma of adrenal cortex
  101. Primary hyperparathyroidism
    • 1. Adenomas
    • 2. Hyperplasia
    • 3. Carcinoma
  102. Primary liver cancer
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α-1 antitrypsin)
  103. Pulmonary hypertension
  104. Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
    Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
  105. Renal tumor
    Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (erythropoietin, renin, PTH, ACTH)
  106. Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
    Cor pulmonale
  107. S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
    Increased ventricular filling (L to R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])
  108. S4 (presystolic gallop)
    Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
  109. Secondary hyperparathyroidism
    Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
  110. Sexually transmitted disease
    Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)
  111. SIADH
    Small cell carcinoma of the lung
  112. Site of diverticula
    Sigmoid colon
  113. Sites of atherosclerosis
    Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
  114. Stomach cancer
  115. Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
  116. t(14;18)
    Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
  117. t(8;14)
    Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
  118. t(9;22)
    Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)
  119. Temporal arteritis
    Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica
  120. Testicular tumor
  121. Thyroid cancer
    Papillary carcinoma
  122. Tumor in women
    Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
  123. Tumor of infancy
    Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)
  124. Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)
    Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
  125. Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)
    Neuroblastoma (malignant)
  126. Type of non-Hodgkin's
    Diffuse large cell
  127. Type of Hodgkin's
    Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
  128. UTI
    E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
  129. Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe
  130. Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)
    Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)