Poly Sci

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pricera
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72446
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Poly Sci
Updated:
2011-03-16 01:04:06
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Pre Modern Thought
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Midterm
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  1. Charges brought against Socrates. 4
    • not recognizing the gods recognized
    • by the state
    • inventing new deities
    • corrupting the youth of Athens.
    • being a busybody
  2. Socrates' Defense against these charges 3
    • Socrates undertakes to show that he must believe in gods of some sort. Socrates proves if he beleives in Super-natural beings they are children of gods, thus he must beleive in gods.
    • Socrates learns from the oracle that he is the wisest and sought out and questioned Athenian men. He learns that these men are wise but no nothinh about anything.
    • Socrates claims he doesn't mean to cause harm to kids if he is and then ask Socrates to stop, rather than punish him
  3. Socrates verdict
    Guilty
  4. Socrates suggested punishment
    On a more serious note, he rejects prison and exile, offering perhaps instead to pay a fine.
  5. Jury sentences him to death

    True or False
    True
  6. Prosecutor suggested pentaly is jail.

    True or False
    False Death
  7. Why is Thrasymachus angry at Socrates?
    Socrates does not give a defintion of justice and just counters everyones arguements
  8. Thrasymachus demands in exchange of his defintion for justice is payment and recogized by Socrates.

    True or False
    True
  9. Thrasymachus' defintion of justice
    • Justice is the advantage for the stronger.Thrasymachus
    • assumes here that justice is the unnatural restraint on our natural desire to have more. Justice is a convention imposed on us, and it does not benefit us to adhere to it. The rational thing to do is ignore justice entirely.
  10. How does Socrates refute Thrasymacus' defintion?
    • Socrates' says that Thrasymachus' makes imjustice as virtue.
    • Socrates claims that in order to get something a person still needs to be just
    • Justice is good for the soul.
  11. What is the theory of the forms?
    Understanding the universe currently as we see an idea. We see the essence of something.
  12. Thrasymachus' use of the Shepherd.
    He uses the shepherd to show that the only reason the shepherd takes care of the sheep is for his own good. Socrates responds by saying when someone is doing a service he is changing is occupation from protector to butcher.
  13. What approach does Socrates use to define justice.
    He attempts to find it in the city and after you can find big scale justice, small scale justice is similar.
  14. Esstenial elements in Plato's Republic. 3
    • Personal freedom is not valued.
    • The good of the state overrides all other considerations.
    • people are sorted into these classes with no thought to their preferences.
  15. How are classes determined
    Classes are made by nature. A person is born into one class or another.
  16. Plato's defintion of justice in the city.

    4 virtues
    • Wisdom: Knowing what is best
    • Couarge: Knowing what is to be feared
    • Temperance: Knowing who should be in charge
    • Justice: All three virtues in place gets this
  17. Plato's defintion of justice in the soul

    4 virtues
    • Reason: wisdom
    • Spiritedness: Courage
    • Temperance: appetite
    • Justice: reason rules over all other virtues
  18. Waves that threaten Plato's city. 3
    • Private Property
    • role of women and children
    • philsopher king
  19. Role of women in Plato's city
    If a woman is skilled she has the right to be a ruler. If born a guardian, she rules over warriors and producers, but she cannot be stronger than male guardians. Women are weaker than some men.
  20. Role of Property in Plato's city
    No private property. Everything belongs to everyone. Our house, our wife, our children. Fight for city, not indivdual things.
  21. Why should philosophers be kings?
    Philosophers are the ones who have access to the forms and be fully just to make best decisions for city. Allegory in Cave.
  22. Plato's feeling about democracy
    Democracy is made to look good but makes indivdiual freedom above all. Wrong men gain power in this system and expoit it.
  23. Effect of democracy on the person's soul
    Ruled by unnesscary desires. All pleasure are equal and goes in the direction of the most appealing desire. No order in his life.
  24. Highest goal is success.

    True or False
    False Happiness
  25. Discovering the highest goal is finding what your aiming for.
    True or False
    True
  26. How does one acheive their highest goal?
    A persom aims for the happiness and completes other smaller goals to reach happiness.
  27. What is virtue?
    Obeying the law. Intellectual by instruction and moral by habit. Virtue can be courage. Balancing between not doing too much and not enough.
  28. How to be virtuous? 3
    • Know to behave the right way
    • Choose to behave right to become virtuous
    • behavior becomes fixed in person
  29. How to deveolp proper habits?
    Compelled by nature to do so.
  30. What is the significance of the natural for politics?
    The city is natural and people natural form cities. Something that happens naturually.
  31. Is slavery natural?
    Yes, Aristole claims that at least one person is born to be in charge. There are other people at least one person born to be a slave. There is a middle catergory of people who can become rulers or slaves even if they are not naturally born that way.
  32. Citzenship defines for the person their relationship to the society. The city is the thing and the people inside the city are less important.

    True or False
    True
  33. Aristole says that there are natural things we need in life, like food and shelter. Forming cities is also natural.

    True or false
    True
  34. Are good citizen and good person same?
    • One is a good citizen to the extent to which one upholds and honors the constitution. Because there are different kinds of constitutions there
    • are also different kinds of good citizens. Perfect virtue, however, is the only standard for being a good man, so it is possible to be a good citizen without being a good man.
  35. What is a citizen?
    Someone who shares in the administration of justice and the holding of public office.
  36. Types of governments 6
    • Monarchy
    • Tyrannny
    • Aristocracy
    • Oligarchy
    • Polity
    • Democracy
  37. Best type of govenment is democracy because evyone is free to vote and make decisions for their society.

    True or false
    False Monarchy because decisions are made fast while making some people happy, but takes the welfare of the state in account when making decisions.
  38. Worst type of govenment is tyranny.

    True or false
    True
  39. Ways to prevent revolution 3

    ( Aristotle is not in favor of revolutions.)
    • Large middle class- Middle class won't overthrow rich; they hope to become rich. The poor class won't overthrow middle class; they hope to become middle class.
    • Enforce laws esp. small ones- Keep people obedience and pressure small laws so they won't revolt.
    • Don't mislead people- People hate liers they want open and clarity.

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