3.) compare expected vs observed using chi sq test
What are p and q for allelic fq and genotypic fq
What is Genotype fq
P and Q represent allele frequencies ie p=f(A) q=f(a)
Genotype frequency is (p+q)2 =p2 + 2pq+ q2 = 1
Two types of non-random mating due to phenotypic resemblence
Positive assortative mating = tendency for like individuals to mate ie humans and height tall with tall... or inbreeding (different because affects all genes, not just determinate of trait of preference)
Negative assortative mating = tendency for unlike individuals to mate ie tall with short... increases heterozygosity
Reasons for deviating from random mating (2)
1. Deviations due to phenotypic resemblance.
2. Deviations due to genetic relatedness.
Two types of non-random mating due to genetic relatedness
1.) Inbreeding - creates increase in homozygous and decrease in heterozygous2.) Outbreeding - avoidance of mating with related individuals (increases heterozygosity of pop)
3.) Genotypic fq change, allele fq do not
Autozygosity vs allozygosity
2. autozygosity: two alleles that are identical by descent.
3. allozygosity: two alleles that are NOT identical by descent
Def. inbreeding coefficient (F)
the probability that the two alleles in an individual
at a given gene are identical by descent (= probability of autozygosity.)
def: Population genetics
study of how genes, alleles, and chromosomes behave in populations
Half-sb vs Full-sip mating pathway
Pedigrees that begin with a half-sib mating have one loop (pathway).
Pedigrees that begin with a full-sib mating contain 2 loops (2 pathways).
What is the ultimate effect of Mutation on a pop? (2 answers)
1.) change in allelic frequency
(mu)p-(v)p; where (mu) is forward mutation rate and (v) is reverse mutation rate
as p --> q, (delta)q decreases because there are less
allelic frequency equilibrium is def as? (for p and q)
q= (mu)/((mu)+(v))p = (v)/((mu)+(v))
def only by forward and reverse rates (not starting fq)
genotypic fq stays same because in HW equilibrium
What is Pt and how do you calculate it? (forward mutation model)
Pt is the allelic frequency after (t) generations experiencing mutation at rate (mu)
Pt = P0(1-(mu))t
Migration effects (2) + similarities to Mutation
1.) Prevents pop from becoming genetically unique (pop become more similiar) "great homogenizer"
2.) Increasegenetic variation with in a pop.
1.) Both bring genetic variation to a pop, but migration is much faster