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What is the apoptosis?
programmed cell death
Where is areolar tissue in the epidermis?
underlying all epithelia, between muscles, passageways for nerves and blood vessels
What are the primary classes of tissue?
What type of tissue is found in the esophagus & adult vagina?
nonkeratinized stratified squamous
What type of tissue is found in the esophagus?
What are the functions of adipose tissue?
- energy storage
What is perichondrium?
a sheath of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the hylaine cartilage
What tissue gives the external ear it's shape?
What's the difference btw serous glands & mucous glands?
- Serious glands-produce thin, watery secretion, while
- Mucous glands-produce mucin that absorb water to form the sticky secretion, mucus
What's the amount of extracellular matrix occupies vs the cells in connective tissue?
The matrix which is composed of fibrous proteins & ground substance is what connective tissue is based upon since they're widely seperated.
What type of cells are the epidermis composed of?
- stem cell
- tactile (merkel) cells
- dendritic cells
What are the layers included in the skin?
Where do we find thick skin?
Are the margins of the lips red or flesh?
Red. The hemoglobin which is red pigment; is shown through the skin, where the blood capillaries come closer to the surface & be seen vividly
What is cyanosis?
blueness from deficiency of oxyvgen in the circulating blood.(cold weather)
What is the definition of erythema?
redness due to dilated cutaneous vessels (anger,sunburn,embarassment)
What is jaundice?
yellowing of the skin & sclera due to excess of billirubin in blood. (liver disease)
What is pallor?
pale color from lack of blood flow
What is albinism?
a genetic lack of melanin
What is a hematoma?
a bruise (visible clotted blood)
What are the layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial?
- stratum basale
- stratum spinosum
- stratum granulosum
- stratum lucidum
- stratum corneum
What is the tube that hair grows in?
the hair follicle
Parts of the hair from deepest to skin surface
- Dermal papilla
- Hair bulb
- Hair matrix
- Apocrine sweat gland
- Hair root
- Hair receptor
- Hair cortex
- Hair medulla
- Piloerector muscle
- sebaceous gland
- epithelila root sheath
- connective tissue sheath
- hair shaft
What glands are responsible for cooling the skin?
When do the apocrine sweat glands develop?
What layer of skin is the rate of mitosis the fastest?
stratum basale, mitosis require lots of oxygen & nutrients in which the deep cell can get from blood vesels in the dermis
Which type of tissues in the body are avascular?
Which connective tissues are branched?
- elastic fibers
- reticular fibers
- collagen fibers
What is the difference btw cornified & noncornified?
- cornified-is the conversion of keratin, usually found on the skin surface, while
- noncornified-lacks a surface of dead layer & is usually moist
- both usually found in stratified squamous epithelia tissue
What is the function of a dipole?
it absorb impact and leave the layer of the compact bone unharmed
How many bones is the mandible in the fetus?
2, broken into left & right halves
How many phalanges are in each finger?
3 in each digit & 2 in the thumb
holds bone together at the joints; attach muscle-muscle
What happens to epiphyseal plates at ages 18-20?
it is depleted and bones can no longer grow longer & a epiphyseal line appears where the plate was.
What structure of the skull articulate with the spinal column?
What structure does the pituitary gland sits?
In the deep pit of the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica, in the sphenoid bone of the skull.
What type of tissue is most likely to have cilia?
What two type of cells found in the nervous tissue?
- neuroglia, or glial cells
What cells are associated with touch?
What causes stretch marks?
stretching of the skin due to obesity or pregnancy which tears collagen fibers & produce striae
Histological arrangement of osseous tissue
- osteogenic cells-located in endosteum,give rise to osteoblasts, multiply continually
- osteoblasts-bone forming cell
- osteocytes-trapped osteoblast in the matrix,homeostasis of calcium & ph ions
- osteoclasts- bone dissolving cell on bone surface
Where is the epiphyses located?
ends of long bone (head)
What type of cartilage do most bone develop?
articular cartilage (hylaine)
What kind of cells do osteoblast and osteoclasts develop from?
What is the inorganic matter percentage og bone?
- 85% hydroxyapatite
- 10% calcium carbonate
- other material-fluoride,potassium,magnesium
What hormone maintain calcium homeostasis in adults?
What happens to bone with vitamin d defficiency?
abnormal softness in bone known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
Define osseous tissue
bone as a connective tissue, which matrix is hardened by decompsition of calcium phosphate & other minerals
Where does the hemopoiesis occur?
in red bone marrow
the forcible tearing away of a body part by trauma or surgery
What is a canaliculi?
slender channels that are interconnected with the lacunae; they help osteocytes contact the processes from their neighbors
What cells are resposible for the breakdown of bone?
Whats the diff btw appositional growth and interstitial growth of bone?
- interstitial-bone increase in length, while
- appositional-bone increase in width
What is the class of bones found in the forearm?
What bones are found in the antebrachium?
What are the paranasal sinuses?
what bone contain the internal and external acoustic meatuses?
Which skull bones are paired?
Where is the lambdoid suture located and what does it seperate?
in the back of the head. occipital & parietal bones
What are the process of the temporal bone?
- zygomatic-extends anterioly to form part of zygomatic arch
- styloid-provides attachment for muscles of the tongue, pharynx, & hyoid bone
- mastoid-where u can palpate as a lump behind earlobe
Can you palpate the occpital condyles of a living person?
What bone is fractured if a person was strangled?
What nerve tract is damaged if theres a fracture of the ethmoid bone?
the olfactory nerve that is associated with the sense of smell
Which vertebrae has a dens?
the cervical's axis
Can cells have two nucleus?
Yes during mitosis, the splitting & duplication of cells
Can mutations change the amino acid sequence of a protein?
What does the nucleus envelope and the mitochondria have in common?
both are double membranous units
What are your nitrogen based purines?
- double ring
What are your nitrogen based pyrimidnes?
- single ring
What are the components of DNA?
What is found in rna, that isnt in dna?
What is the function of dna helicase?
opens short segment of helix, repication is point of 2 strands
What is DNA wrapped around in the nucleosome?
histones, core of proteins
What happens in anaphase?
enzyme split 2 chromatids apart a centomere
How do malignant tumors differ from benign tumors?
- benign- connective tissue capsule, slow growth, stay local, potentially lethal, while
- malignant- is cancerous, unencapsulated, fast growing, metastic(spreading)