Normal Ranges

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
72514
Filename:
Normal Ranges
Updated:
2011-03-13 03:01:58
Tags:
biochemistry medicine normal values
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Description:
Normal ranges and differentials for biochemical analysis in medicine
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  1. Sodium
    135-145
  2. Potassium
    3.5-5
  3. Chloride
    96-109
  4. Bicarbonate
    25-33
  5. Glucose
    3-7.7
  6. Urea
    2-8
  7. Creatinine
    40-140
  8. Total Bilirubin
    2-20
  9. Conj Bilirubin
    0-8
  10. Alk Phos
    30-115
  11. ALT
    0-45
  12. AST
    0-41
  13. GGT
    0-70
  14. LDH
    80-250
  15. Calcium
    2.25-2.65
  16. Phosphate
    0.8-1.5
  17. Total Protein
    60-82
  18. Albumin
    35-50
  19. Iron
    10-33
  20. CRP
    0-6
  21. Hb
    115-180
  22. RCC
    3.6-6
  23. HCT
    0.34-0.52
  24. MCV
    80-98
  25. WCC
    4-11
  26. Neut
    2-7.5
  27. Platelets
    150-450
  28. Causes of raised sodium
    • water loss
    • salt overload
    • renal impairment
  29. Causes of raised Potassium
    • cell leakage (sepsis, collection artifact)
    • renal disease
    • adrenal impairment
    • acidosis
  30. Causes of raised chloride
    • dehydration
    • diarrhoea
    • renal tubular acidosis
  31. Causes of raised bicarbonate
    • respiratory acidosis
    • metabolic alkalosis
  32. Causes of raised glucose
    • diabetes
    • excess steroids
    • burns
    • hypokalaemia
  33. Causes of raised urea
    • renal impairment
    • increased protein breakdown
    • GI bleeding
    • dehydration
  34. Causes of raised total bilirubin
    • gilbert syndrome
    • hepatitis
    • malignancy
    • gall stones
  35. Causes of raised conj bilirubin
    biliary obstruction
  36. Alk Phos
    • liver disease (hepatitis, obstruction, tumour)
    • bone disease (fracture, paget's, malignancy)
  37. Causes of raised GGT
    • hepatitis
    • biliary obstruction
    • pancreatitis
    • alcohol
  38. Causes of raised ALT
    • liver disease
    • fatty liver
    • haemochromatosis
    • alcohol
  39. Causes of raised AST
    • liver disease
    • myocardial disease
    • skeletal muscle disease
  40. Causes of raised LDH
    • myocardial disease
    • liver disease
    • muscle disease
    • haemolysis
  41. Causes of raised calcium
    • hyperparathyroidism
    • malignancy
    • Vit D and A excess
    • sarcoidosis
  42. Causes of raised phosphate
    • haemolysis
    • renal impairment
    • acidosis
    • hypoparathyroidism
  43. Causes of raised total protein
    • multiple myeloma
    • chronic liver disease
    • chronic inflammation
    • dehydration
  44. Causes of raised albumin
    dehydration
  45. Causes of raised iron
    • oral iron intake
    • haemochromatosis
    • GI bleeding
  46. Causes of decreased sodium
    • water overload (CCF, SIADH)
    • salt loss (diuretics, adrenal failure, sweating, renal impairment)
  47. Causes of decreased potassium
    • diuretics
    • dietary deficiency
    • renal tubular disease
    • steroids
  48. Causes of decreased chloride
    • vomiting
    • water overload
    • diuretics
    • CF
  49. Causes of decreased bicarbonate
    • respiratory alkalosis
    • metabolic acidosis (renal failure, liver failure, diabetic, diarrhoea)
  50. Causes of decreased urea
    • protein deficiency
    • diuresis
    • pregnancy
  51. Causes of decreased creatinine
    chronic muscle loss
  52. Causes of decreased alk phos
    • zinc deficiency
    • congenital hypophosphataemia
  53. Causes of decreased calcium
    • low albumin
    • acidosis
    • renal disease
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • vit D deficiency
  54. Causes of decreased phosphate
    • low intake
    • alcohol
    • renal tubular disease
    • hyperparathyroidism
  55. Causes of decreased total protein
    • malnutrition
    • liver disease
    • water overload
    • nephrotic syndrome
  56. Causes of decreased albumin
    • chronic liver disease
    • malnutrition
    • nephrotic syndrome
    • chronic inflammation
    • burns
  57. Causes of decreased iron
    • poor intake
    • chronic disease
    • blood loss

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