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2011-03-13 03:40:10
awl academic word list academic

Academic Word List, sorted alphabetically, from the work of Averil Coxhead, based on frequency of use
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  1. abandon
    stop doing something because of problems
  2. abstract
    based on ideas
  3. academic
    connected with education
  4. access
    find and use information especially on a computer
  5. accommodation
    a place to live or work
  6. accompany
    somebody goes with someone
  7. accumulation
    gradual increase in quantity
  8. accurate
    exactly correct
  9. achieve
    succeed in doing something good
  10. acknowledged
    accepted that something was true
  11. acquire
    get something
  12. adaptation
    a change in something so that it can be used in a different situation
  13. adequate
    enough for a particular purpose
  14. adjacent
    next to something
  15. adjust
    change or move something slightly
  16. administration
    the work of managing the affairs of a company
  17. adult
    fully grown
  18. advocate
    say you strongly support a way of doing things
  19. affect
    cause a change
  20. aggregate
  21. aid
    help or support
  22. albeit
  23. allocate
    decide to use something for a particular purpose
  24. alter
    change or make something change
  25. alternative
    something you can do instead of something else
  26. ambiguous
    having more than one possible meaning
  27. amend
    make small changes or improvements
  28. analogy
    similar to another situation or thing
  29. analysis
    careful examination
  30. annual
    happening once every year
  31. anticipate
    expect something to happen
  32. apparent
    easily seen or understood
  33. appendix
    a part at the end of a book or report that has additional information
  34. appreciate
    understand a difficult situation or problem
  35. approach
    a way of doing something or dealing with a problem
  36. appropriate
    suitable for a particular time or purpose
  37. approximately
    a little more or less than an exact number
  38. arbitrary
    not based on any practical or good reasons
  39. area
    a particular subject or type of activity
  40. aspect
    one of the parts of a situation or subject
  41. assembly
    a group of people who have come together for a particular purpose
  42. assess
    examine something and make a decision about it
  43. assign
    give somebody a job to do
  44. assistance
    help and support
  45. assume
    think that something is true
  46. assure
    tell somebody that something will definitely happen or is true
  47. attach
    fasten or join
  48. attain
    achieve something after trying for a long time
  49. attitude
    what you think and feel about something
  50. attributed
    said that something was caused or written by someone
  51. author
    someone who writes a book or article
  52. authority
    someone who is respected because of their knowledge
  53. automate
    without much human control
  54. available
    that you can get buy or use etc
  55. aware
    knowing about or realising something
  56. behalf
    instead of someone
  57. benefit
    an advantage or improvement
  58. bias
    an opinion that unfairly influences how you do something
  59. bond
    a shared feeling or interest that unites people
  60. brief
    continuing for only a short time
  61. bulk
    in large quantities
  62. capable
    having the skill power or other qualities that are needed to do something
  63. capacity
    the amount that a factory or machine can produce
  64. categories
    groups of people or things that have the same qualities or features
  65. cease
    stops doing something or stops happening
  66. challenge
    say you doubt whether something is right or true
  67. channel
    use something for a particular purpose
  68. chapter
    one of the parts that a book is divided into
  69. chart
    information that is shown in the form of a picture
  70. chemical
    related to substances used in chemistry
  71. circumstances
    a fact or condition that affects what happens in a situation
  72. cite
    use someone's words to support what you are saying
  73. civil
    relating to laws about private business not crime
  74. clarify
    make clear what you speak write or think
  75. classical
    based on a traditional set of ideas
  76. clause
    a part of a legal document
  77. code
    a set of rules or laws
  78. coherent
    clear and easy to understand
  79. coincide
    happen by chance at the same time or in the same place
  80. collapse
    fail suddenly and completely
  81. colleague
    people you work with
  82. commence
  83. comment
    give an opinion about something or someone
  84. commission
    ask for a piece of work to be done by someone
  85. commitment
    a promise to do something
  86. commodity
    a product that is being bought or sold
  87. communication
    process of exchanging information or ideas by speaking or writing
  88. community
    a small area or town and the people who live in it
  89. compatible
    able to exist or live together without problems
  90. compensation
    something that makes a bad situation seem better
  91. compile
    make a book list etc from different pieces of information
  92. complement
    something that makes another thing seem good
  93. complex
    consisting of many connected parts
  94. component
    one of the different parts of a machine or system
  95. compound
    a substance that consists of two or more elements
  96. comprehensive
    including everything that is needed
  97. comprise
    form part of a larger group
  98. computer
    an electronic machine that can store and arrange large quantities of information
  99. conceive
    think of a new idea or plan
  100. concentration
    a large amount of something in the same place
  101. concept
    a general idea
  102. conclusion
    something you decide after considering all the information you have
  103. concurrent
    existing or happening at the same time
  104. conduct
    carry out or organise something
  105. conference
    a large formal meeting in which people exchange ideas
  106. confined
    happened in only one place or time
  107. confirmed
    said or proved something is definitely true
  108. conflict
    a situation in which you have to choose between opposing things
  109. conform
    obey or follow an existing rule
  110. consent
    permission to do something
  111. consequences
    things that happen as a result of something else
  112. considerable
    large enough to be important or have an effect
  113. consist
    made of or contain a number of different things
  114. constant
    happening regularly or all the time
  115. constitution
    a set of laws that describe the power and purposes of a government or organisation
  116. constraints
    things that limit your freedom to do what you want
  117. construction
    the process of building something large such as a house bridge or road
  118. consultation
    a discussion in which people who are affected by a decision can say what they think should be done
  119. consumer
    someone who buys or uses goods or services
  120. contact
    communicating with a person organisation or country
  121. contemporary
    happening or existing in the same period of time
  122. context
    the situation within which something happens
  123. contract
    a formal written agreement between people or companies etc.
  124. contradiction
    a difference between two statements facts etc. which means they cannot both be true
  125. contrary
    used to emphasise that the opposite of what someone has just said is actually true
  126. contrast
    a big difference between people situations ideas etc. that are being compared
  127. contribution
    something that you give or do to help make something successful
  128. controversy
    a lot of argument and disagreement about something
  129. conventional
    the normal and traditional way of thinking and behaving in a society
  130. conversely
    in a way that is opposite to something
  131. converted
    changed from one system or purpose to another
  132. convinced
    certain that something is true
  133. cooperative
    willing to help
  134. coordination
    when people and things are organised so they work together effectively
  135. core
    a central or most important part of something
  136. corporate
    shared by all people in a group
  137. corresponding
    having the same position effect or importance as something else
  138. couple
    two things joined together
  139. create
    make something new exist or happen
  140. credit
    praise given to someone for doing something
  141. criteria
    facts or standards to help you decide something
  142. crucial
    extremely important
  143. culture
    relating to a particular society and its way of life
  144. currency
    the type of money that a country uses
  145. cycle
    a number of connected events that happen many times in the same order
  146. data
    information or facts
  147. debate
    discuss a subject formally
  148. decade
    a period of ten years
  149. decline
    become weaker smaller or less important
  150. deduce
    decide that something is true using the information you have
  151. definite
    completely certain and not likely to be changed
  152. definition
    a phrase or sentence that says exactly what a word phrase or idea means
  153. demonstrate
    show somebody something
  154. denote
    be used as sign for something
  155. deny
    say that something is not true
  156. depression
    a feeling of sadness and loss of hope
  157. derived
    have something as its origin
  158. design
    draw or plan something that will be made
  159. despite
    without being affected by the thing mentioned
  160. detected
    noticed something that was not easy to see
  161. deviation
    different from what is normal or acceptable
  162. device
    a machine or tool used for a particular purpose
  163. devoted
    deals with one main subject or activity
  164. differentiate
    notice or understand the difference between things or people
  165. dimension
    the size of something including its length width and height
  166. diminished
    became smaller or less important
  167. discretion
    the authority to decide what the right thing to do is in a particular situation
  168. discrimination
    when one group of people is unfairly treated differently from another
  169. displace
    take the place of someone or something
  170. display
    put things where people can see them easily
  171. disposal
    when you get rid of something
  172. distinction
    a clear difference between things
  173. distort
    change the shape or sound of something so it is strange or unclear
  174. distribution
    supplying goods to shops and companies in a particular area
  175. diversity
    great difference
  176. document
    a piece of paper that has official information written on it
  177. domain
    all the things that are included in a subject or activity
  178. domestic
    happening within one country
  179. dominant
    strongest most important or most noticeable
  180. draft
    a piece of writing or a plan that is not yet finished
  181. dramatic
    sudden and surprising
  182. duration
    the length of time that something continues
  183. dynamic
    relating to forces that produce movement
  184. economic
    concerning trade industry and the making of money
  185. edition
    the copies of a book that are all the same
  186. element
    one part of a plan system piece of writing etc.
  187. eliminate
    completely get rid of something or someone
  188. emerge
    became known
  189. emphasis
    special importance that you give to something
  190. empirical
    based on scientific method or practical example
  191. enable
    make it possible for someone to do something
  192. encounter
    experience something that causes difficulty
  193. energy
    power from oil coal etc. that produces heat and makes machines work
  194. enforce
    make people obey a rule or law
  195. enhance
    improve something
  196. enormous
    extremely big
  197. ensure
    make certain that something happens
  198. entity
    something that exists as a single and complete unit
  199. environment
    the land water and air that people plants and animals live in
  200. equate
    consider that one thing is the same as something else
  201. equipment
    things that are used for a particular activity
  202. equivalent
    equal in amount or value to something else
  203. erode
    gradually destroy something
  204. error
    mistake especially one that causes problems
  205. establish
    start or decide something
  206. estate
    all of someone's property or money
  207. estimate
    decide what you think the value of something is
  208. ethical
    connected with principles of what is right and wrong
  209. ethnic
    relating to a particular race of people
  210. evaluate
    carefully consider something or someone to decide how good they are
  211. eventually
    after a long time
  212. evidence
    facts statements or signs that make you believe something exists or is true
  213. evolution
    gradual change or development
  214. exceed
    more than a particular number or amount
  215. exclude
    deliberately not include something
  216. exhibit
    put something in a particular place so that people can see it
  217. expansion
    when something increases in size number or amount
  218. expert
    someone with special skills or knowledge
  219. explicit
    very clear and easy to understand
  220. exploit
    use something effectively
  221. export
    the business of selling products to another country
  222. expose
    remove the cover from something that is usually covered
  223. external
    relating to the outside of something
  224. extract
    remove something
  225. facilitate
    make it easier for something to happen
  226. factors
    the things that influence a cause or situation
  227. features
    important interesting or typical parts of something
  228. federal
    relating to the national government of a country which consists of several states
  229. fee
    money that you pay for professional services
  230. file
    a set of papers containing information about a particular person or thing
  231. final
    last in a series or happening at the end of something
  232. financial
    connected with money
  233. finite
    having an end or limit
  234. flexible
    able to change easily
  235. fluctuations
    small regular changes
  236. focus
    give all your attention to a particular thing
  237. format
    the way something is organised or designed
  238. formula
    a group of numbers or letters that show a mathematical or scientific rule
  239. forthcoming
    happening soon
  240. found
    start an organisation
  241. foundation
    basic belief or idea that something is based on
  242. framework
    set of rules facts or beliefs that people use to make plans or decisions
  243. function
    the purpose that something is made for
  244. fund
    an amount of money that is kept for a particular purpose
  245. fundamental
    relating to the most basic and important parts of something
  246. furthermore
    in addition to what has already been said
  247. gender
    the fact of being masculine or feminine
  248. generate
    make something happen or start to exist
  249. generation
    all of the people who are about the same age
  250. globe
    the world
  251. goal
    something that you hope to achieve in the future
  252. grade
    level of quality or importance
  253. grant
    an amount of money given to someone by an organisation for a particular purpose
  254. guarantee
    promise that something will happen or will be done
  255. guidelines
    official advice about the way to do something
  256. hence
    for this reason
  257. hierarchical
    organisation in which people are arranged in ranks of importance
  258. highlight
    make something the main subject or problem that people pay attention to
  259. hypothesis
    an idea that someone suggests as an explanation of something but that they have not proved to be true
  260. identical
    exactly the same
  261. identify
    recognise and name somebody or something
  262. ideology
    based on a particular set of words or ideas
  263. ignored
    did not pay any attention to someone or something
  264. illustrated
    explained or made something clear by giving examples
  265. image
    the way that people consider something or someone to be
  266. immigration
    when people come to a country in order to live there
  267. impact
    the effect someone or something has
  268. implement
    begin to make something happen
  269. implications
    possible results of a plan action etc.
  270. implicit
    suggested or understood but not stated directly
  271. imply
    suggest that something is true without saying or showing it directly
  272. impose
    force someone to accept a rule a tax your beliefs etc
  273. incentive
    something that encourages you to work harder or to start something new
  274. incidence
    how often something happens
  275. inclination
    the desire to do something
  276. income
    money that you earn
  277. incorporate
    to include something as part of a group system etc.
  278. index
    an alphabetical list at the end of a book that contains all the names subjects etc in the book and the pages where you can find them
  279. indicate
    show that something is likely to be true or exist
  280. individual
    considered separately from other people or things in the same group
  281. induced
    caused a particular physical condition
  282. inevitable
    will definitely happen and you cannot avoid it
  283. infer
    decide that particular facts must be true because of other information that you already have
  284. infrastructure
    the basic systems that a country or organisation needs in order to work properly
  285. inherent
    a quality that is naturally part of something
  286. inhibit
    prevent something from growing or developing
  287. initial
    happening at the beginning first
  288. initiate
    arrange for something important to start
  289. injury
    physical harm that someone suffers in an accident or attack
  290. innovation
    a new idea method etc. that is used for the first time
  291. input
    ideas advice money or effort that you put into a job meeting etc. in order to help it succeed
  292. insert
    put something inside or into something
  293. insight
    the ability to understand something clearly
  294. inspection
    an official visit to a building or organisation to check that everything is of a good enough standard
  295. instance
    an example of a particular kind of situation or behaviour
  296. institute
    an organisation that does educational or scientific work
  297. instruct
    information or advice that tells you how to do something
  298. integral
    forming a necessary part of something
  299. integration
    the combination of two or more things to make an effective system
  300. integrity
    the quality of being honest and having high moral standards
  301. intelligent
    good at learning and understanding things
  302. intense
    involving a lot of thought work effort etc. in a short period of time
  303. interaction
    talking to people and making relationships with them
  304. intermediate
    between two stages
  305. internal
    inside something such as your body or a country
  306. interpretation
    a way of explaining or understanding information someone's actions etc.
  307. interval
    a period of time between two events or activities
  308. intervene
    do something to try to stop an argument war etc
  309. intrinsic
    forming part of the basic character of something
  310. investigation
    an official attempt to find out something
  311. investment
    the money you give to a company or bank in order to make a profit later
  312. invoke
    use a law principle etc. to support your opinions or actions
  313. involve
    include or affect someone or something
  314. isolate
    make or keep one person separate from others
  315. issue
    a subject or problem
  316. item
    a single thing in a set
  317. job
    work that you do regularly in order to earn money
  318. journal
    a magazine for people who are interested in a particular subject
  319. justification
    a good reason for doing something
  320. label
    a piece of paper or other material with information on it which is stuck or tied to an object
  321. labour
    work especially hard physical work
  322. layer
    one of several levels of different substances or materials that are on top of each other
  323. lecture
    a talk to a group of people about a subject
  324. legal
    allowed or done according to the law
  325. legislation
    a law or set of laws
  326. levy
    officially make someone pay a tax etc.
  327. liberal
    willing to understand or respect other people's behaviour and ideas
  328. licence
    an official document that gives you permission to do something
  329. likewise
    in the same way
  330. link
    a relationship or connection between two or more events people or ideas
  331. location
    in a particular place or position
  332. logic
    the science or study of thinking carefully about something using formal methods
  333. maintain
    make something continue in the same way or at the same standard as before
  334. major
    very large or important especially when compared to other things or people of a similar kind
  335. manipulate
    skilfully control or move something
  336. manual
    working using your hands especially hard physical work
  337. margin
    the difference in the numbers of votes between the winners and the losers
  338. mature
    fully grown or developed
  339. maximise
    increase something as much as possible
  340. mechanism
    that part of a machine that does a particular job
  341. media
    television radio and newspapers
  342. mediate
    try to help two groups countries etc. stop arguing and make an agreement
  343. medical
    relating to medicine and the treatment of disease or injury
  344. medium
    way of communicating information or expressing ideas to people
  345. mental
    relating to the mind or happening in the mind
  346. method
    a way of doing something
  347. migrate
    go to live in another place usually to find work
  348. military
    relating to war
  349. minimal
    extremely small in amount or degree and therefore not worth worrying about
  350. minimise
    make the degree or amount of something as small as possible
  351. minimum
    the smallest number or amount that is possible or needed
  352. ministry
    government department
  353. minor
    small and not very important or serious
  354. mode
    a particular way of behaving living or doing something
  355. modify
    make small changes in something in order to improve it
  356. monitor
    watch or measure something carefully for a period of time to see how it changes
  357. motive
    the reason why someone does something
  358. mutual
    shared by two or more people
  359. negative
    having a bad or harmful effect
  360. network
    a system of things or people that are connected with each other
  361. neutral
    not supporting any of the groups people countries in a war argument election etc
  362. nevertheless
    in spite of what has just been mentioned
  363. nonetheless
    in spite of what has just been mentioned
  364. normal
    usual typical or expected
  365. norms
    the usual and acceptable ways of behaving
  366. notion
    an idea belief or opinion about something especially one that is wrong
  367. notwithstanding
    in spite of something
  368. nuclear
    using the energy that is produced when at atom is split or joined to another atom
  369. objective
    not influenced by your own feelings or opinions
  370. obtain
    get something
  371. obvious
    easy to notice or understand
  372. occupational
    connected with your job
  373. occur
    happen especially without being planned first
  374. odds
    how likely it is that something will or will not happen
  375. offset
    make a bad situation better by providing something good
  376. ongoing
    continuing to happen
  377. option
    something that you can choose to do
  378. orientation
    the kind of beliefs and ideas that a group or person has
  379. outcome
    the final results of a meeting process etc.
  380. output
    the amount of work goods etc that someone or something produces
  381. overall
    considering or including anything
  382. overlap
    when part of one thing covers part of another thing
  383. overseas
    to in or from another country that is across the sea
  384. panel
    a group of people who are chosen to discuss something or answer questions
  385. paradigm
    a typical example or pattern of something
  386. paragraph
    a group of sentences in a piece of writing that starts on a new line
  387. parallel
    lines that are the same distance apart along their whole length
  388. parameters
    limit on how much should be considered discussed included etc
  389. participation
    taking part in an activity or an event
  390. partnership
    a relationship between two people or organisations who work together to achieve something
  391. passive
    tending to accept situations or things that other people do without trying to change or influence them
  392. perceive
    understand or think about something in a particular way
  393. percent
    one part in every hundred
  394. period
    a length of time
  395. persist
    continue to do something even though it is difficult or other people do not like it
  396. perspective
    a way of thinking about something
  397. phase
    one part of a process in which something develops or grows
  398. phenomenon
    something that happens or exists especially something that is unusual or difficult to understand
  399. philosophy
    the study of ideas about existence thought and behaviour
  400. physical
    relating to someone's body rather than mind
  401. plus
    used when one number or amount is added to another
  402. policy
    a way of doing or dealing with things especially one that has been officially decided by a political party or organisation
  403. portion
    a part of something
  404. pose
    cause a problem or ask a question
  405. positive
    hopeful and confident
  406. potential
    the possibility that something will happen or develop in a particular way
  407. practitioner
    someone who works as a doctor or lawyer
  408. precede
    happen or exist before something else
  409. precise
    exact and correct in every detail
  410. predict
    say that something will happen
  411. predominantly
    mostly or mainly
  412. preliminary
    happening or done at the beginning of a process especially in order to prepare for what will come late
  413. presume
    think that something is not true although you are not certain
  414. previous
    happening or existing at an earlier time
  415. primary
    most important main
  416. prime
    main or most important
  417. principal
    most important main
  418. principle
    a moral rule or idea that has a strong influence on the way you behave
  419. prior
  420. priority
    the thing that you think is most important and should be dealt with first
  421. proceed
    continue to do something that has already started
  422. process
    a series of events or changes that happen naturally
  423. professional
    a job that needs special education and training
  424. prohibit
    have a law that stops people doing things
  425. project
    important work that is planned and organised carefully over a period of time
  426. promote
    help something to develop and be successful
  427. proportion
    a part of a large amount or number
  428. prospect
    the chance that something you hope for will happen soon
  429. protocol
    system of rules about the correct way to behave on official occasions
  430. psychology
    the scientific study of the mind and how it works
  431. publication
    a book magazine etc that is printed and made available for people to buy
  432. published
    printed and made available for people to buy
  433. purchase
    when somebody buys something
  434. pursue
    continue to do something or try to achieve something over a long period of time
  435. qualitative
    relating to the quality of something rather than its size
  436. quote
    repeat the words that someone else has written
  437. radical
    big changes that have important effects
  438. random
    happening or chosen without any definite plan or system
  439. range
    a group of things that are different but belong to the same general type
  440. ratio
    a relationship between two amounts written as two numbers
  441. rational
    based on real facts or scientific knowledge and not influenced by feelings
  442. reaction
    something that you feel or do because of what has happened to you or been said to you
  443. recover
    get better after an illness injury shock etc.
  444. refine
    use an industrial process to make a natural substance more pure
  445. regime
    a system of government or management especially one you disapprove of
  446. region
    a fairly large area within a state country etc. usually without exact limits
  447. register
    record names facts etc. on an official list
  448. regulate
    control an activity or process especially by having rules
  449. reinforce
    support an opinion feeling system etc. and make it stronger
  450. reject
    refuse to accept believe in or agree with something
  451. relaxed
    feeling calm and comfortable and not worried about anything
  452. release
    let someone go free after keeping them as a prisoner
  453. relevant
    directly related to the problem or subject being discussed
  454. reluctant
    unwilling and therefore slow to do something
  455. rely
    trust or depend on something or someone
  456. remove
    take something away
  457. require
    need something
  458. research
    the study of a subject in detail so you can discover new facts about it
  459. reside
    live somewhere
  460. resolve
    find a way of dealing with a problem
  461. resources
    something that a country organisation person etc. has which they can use
  462. respond
    behave in a particular way after someone has done something or something has happened
  463. restore
    repair something so that it is in its original condition
  464. restrain
    prevent someone form doing something
  465. restrict
    limit something
  466. retain
    keep something and not lose it
  467. reveal
    make something known that was previously secret or not known
  468. revenue
    money that is earned by a company or money that the government receives from tax
  469. reverse
    change something such as a decision or way of doing something so that it is the opposite of what it was before
  470. revise
    change something to improve it or make it more suitable
  471. revolution
    a complete change in the way people do something or in the ideas that people have about a subject
  472. rigid
    stiff and not moving or bending
  473. role
    the position that someone or something has in a situation or activity
  474. route
    the way from one place to another
  475. scenario
    a situation that could happen but has not happened yet
  476. schedule
    a plan of when work is to be done
  477. scheme
    an idea or plan that someone has especially a slightly dishonest or stupid one
  478. scope
    the range of subjects that a book discussion etc. deals with
  479. section
    one of the parts that an object group place etc. is divided into
  480. sector
    one of the parts that an area or large group of people is divided into
  481. secure
    not likely to change or become a risk
  482. seek
    try to find or get something
  483. select
    choose something or someone
  484. sequence
    a series of events or actions that have a particular order
  485. series
    several events or actions of the same kind that happen one after the other
  486. sex
    whether someone is male or female
  487. shift
    a change in the way most people think about something
  488. significant
    noticeable or important
  489. similar
    almost the same but not exactly
  490. simulate
    something you do in order to practise what you would do in a real situation
  491. site
    a place where something important or interesting happens
  492. so-called
    used to show that you think the word used to describe something is wrong
  493. sole
    the only one
  494. somewhat
    more than a little but not very
  495. source
    the thing place or person that you get something from
  496. specific
    used to talk about a particular thing person or time
  497. specify
    state something in an exact and detailed way
  498. sphere
    the shape of a ball
  499. stable
    strong and not likely to move or change
  500. statistics
    a set of numbers that have been collected to show information about something
  501. status
    the position that someone or something has compared to other people or things
  502. straightforward
    simple to do or easy to understand
  503. strategy
    a set of plans used to achieve something or to help you be successful
  504. stress
    continuous feelings of worry about your work or personal life that prevent you from relaxing
  505. structure
    the way in which the parts of something are organised and are related to each other
  506. style
    a way of doing or making something that is typical of a particular person group or period
  507. submit
    formally send something to someone in writing for them to consider
  508. subordinate
    someone who has a less important job than someone else in an organisation
  509. subsequent
    coming after something else
  510. subsidy
    money that a government or organisation pays to help with the cost of something
  511. substitute
    use something new or different instead of something else
  512. successor
    the person who has someone's job after they leave
  513. sufficient
    as much as you need for a particular purpose
  514. sum
    an amount of money
  515. summary
    a short statement that gives the main information about something
  516. supplement
    something that you add to something else to improve it
  517. survey
    a set of questions that you ask a lot of people in order to find out information
  518. survive
    continue to live after an accident illness etc.
  519. suspend
    officially stop or delay something for a short period
  520. sustain
    make something continue to exist
  521. symbol
    a picture object etc. that is the sign of a particular quality idea or organisation
  522. tape
    thin narrow band of plastic material used for recording sounds
  523. target
    a result you are trying to achieve
  524. task
    a piece of work that someone has to do especially one that is difficult or unpleasant
  525. team
    a group of people who work together to do a particular job
  526. technical
    relating to practical skills knowledge and methods used in science or industry
  527. technique
    a special skill or way of doing something
  528. technology
    a combination of all the knowledge equipment methods etc. that are used in scientific or industrial work
  529. temporary
    existing or happening for a limited period of time
  530. tense
    nervous and anxious
  531. terminate
    end or make something end
  532. text
    the writing in a book magazine etc. rather than the pictures
  533. theme
    the main subject or idea in a book
  534. theory
    an explanation for something that has not been proved to be true
  535. thereby
    with the result that
  536. thesis
    a long piece of writing that you do for a university degree
  537. topic
    a subject that people talk or write about
  538. trace
    find the origins of something and find out how it developed
  539. tradition
    a custom belief or way of doing something that has existed for a long time
  540. transfer
    move someone or something from one place part of an organisation etc. to another
  541. transform
    change something or someone completely
  542. transit
    when people goods etc. are moved from one place to another
  543. transmit
    to send out radio signals for radio or television
  544. transport
    when people goods etc. are moved from one place to another
  545. trend
    the way a situation is generally developing or changing
  546. trigger
    make something start to happen
  547. ultimate
    the final and most important thing
  548. undergo
    have a difficult or unpleasant experience
  549. underlying
    important but hidden
  550. undertake
    start to do a piece of work especially one that is long and difficult
  551. uniform
    all the same size shape etc.
  552. unify
    join the parts of a country organisation etc. together to make a single country organisation etc.
  553. unique
    the only one of its kind; often very good or special
  554. utilise
    use something
  555. valid
    can be used legally; officially acceptable
  556. variable
    likely to change often
  557. vehicle
    a thing such as a car or bus that is used for carrying people or things
  558. version
    a form of something that is different from other forms
  559. via
    travelling through or stopping at a place when you are going to another place
  560. violate
    disobey a law agreement etc.
  561. virtual
    almost completely
  562. visible
    something that can be seen or noticed
  563. vision
    the ability to see
  564. visual
    relating to seeing or your ability to see
  565. volume
    the total amount of something
  566. voluntary
    working without being paid
  567. welfare
    the general health and happiness of a person or group
  568. whereas
    used for showing a fact that is different
  569. whereby
    by which; because of which
  570. widespread
    happening in many places among many people or in many situations