CFI Chemistry Vocab

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CFI Chemistry Vocab
2011-03-13 10:41:49
CFI Vocab

Vocab for Test 1
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  1. Atomic Number
    The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
  2. Atomic Weight
    An average of the isotopes of an element based on their mass compared to Carbon-12, and their relative abundance in nature
  3. Electron
    Fundamental particle discovered by Thomson; negatively charged; found in orbitals around the nucleus
  4. Excited States
    The higher energy states for electrons in an atom
  5. Ground State
    The lowest energy state for electrons in an atom (normal state)
  6. Ion
    An atom that has acquired an unbalanced electron charge because it has lost or gained electrons
  7. Isotope
    Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons
  8. Mass Number
    The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus of an atom
  9. Neutron
    Neutral particle in the nucleus; discovered by Chadwick
  10. Nucleus
    Tiny, massive "core" of an atom where protons and neutrons are found; surrounded by electrons
  11. Orbital
    Defines the space where an electron is likely to be found
  12. Photons
    Discrete units of energy of which light consists, according to Einstein
  13. Proton
    Discrete unit of positive charge in the nucleus; discovered by Rutherford
  14. Representative Elements
    The members of the A-group families in the Periodic Table; also called the main group
  15. Transition Elements
    Members of the B group in Periodic Table; all are metals
  16. Atom
    The smallest unit of an element that can exist alone or in combination with other elements
  17. Chemical Bond
    An attractive force that holds atoms together in a compound
  18. Chemical Energy
    Changes in internal potential energy
  19. Covalent Bond
    A chemical bond formed by the sharing of at least a pair of electrons
  20. Double Bond
    A covalent bond formed when two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
  21. Formula
    Describes what elements are in a compound and in what proportions
  22. Ionic Bond
    The chemical bond of electrostatic attraction between negative and positive ions
  23. Molecule
    The smallest particle of a compound or gaseous element that can exist and still retain the characteristic properties of a substance
  24. Octet Rule
    Atoms attempt to acquire an outer orbital with eight electrons
  25. Polar Covalent Bond
    A covalent bond in which there is an unequal sharing of bonding electrons
  26. Single Bond
    A covalent bond in which a single pair of electrons is shared by two atoms
  27. Triple Bond
    A covalent bond formed when three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
  28. Valence Electrons
    The outer electrons, which participate in chemical bonding