# Instrumentation Final

 The flashcards below were created by user icimmy on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What is a thermocycler? A PCR machine that amplified DNA fragments millions of times How does the PCR reaction work? 94 Heat- denature52 Cool- anneal primers to template72 Warm- extends and replicatesRepeats 35 cycles What is a spectrophotometer? A device for measuring light intensity What 4 things can happen when light strikes matter? TransmittedReflectedScatteredAbsorbed What is transmittance? The ratio of amount of light passed through the sample, compared to the amount of light passed through the blank What is the equation for absorbance? Absorbance = -log (transmittance) What is the relationship between concentration compared to transmission and absorbance? (as concentration increases) Transmission decreasesAbsorbance increases What is the equation for the line for concentration? Absorbance = (slope of line)(Concentration) What is a centrifuge? A mechanical device that accelerate the rate of sedimentation by rapidly spinning and increasing centrifugal force What is the formula to calculate relative Centrifugal field? (RCF) RCF = 11.2 x r (RPM/1000)2 What is the equation for calculating RPM from g force? RPM = 1000 x [RCF/ (11.17 x r)]1/2 What determines the rate of sedimentation? relative centrifugal fieldViscositySize of particles What is the sediment coefficient (S)? The value that expresses the rate of sedimentation for a given particleThe larger the value the quicker it will sediment What materials are used to make preformed gradients? SucroseFicoll What 3 ways are centrifuges classified based on mode of operation? Differential (Pellet and Supernatant)Density (Separation of fluids through density gradient)Continuous (large scale and supernatant is slowly discarded) What 2 methods of centrifugation is used in density gradient? Rate ZonalBuoyant Density What are the 3 styles of centrifuge rotors? Horizontal (good for cells, takes longer)Fixed Angle (sheers cells (bad), very quick though)Vertical (used for buoyant density separation) What is the optimal temperature, humidity, and CO2 level for mammalian cells growth? 37 degrees80-95% humidity5% CO2 What percent of contaminates does the HEPA filter in the incubator remove? 99.97% How is the CO2 level in the incubator monitored and controlled? Ours- Thermal conductivity (TC) sensorInfrared (IR) sensor What is magnification? The ability to enlarge the visual image of the specimen. What is resolving power? The power to distinguish between 2 points as distinct separate entities What is resolution? The limit at which two small objects can be distinguished from each other. What is oil immersion? A technique to maximize resolution of fixed cells What is a field of view? The amount of specimen that can be seen through the microscope What is working distance? Distances between the objective lens and the specimen What is the most commonly used microscopy imaging technique? Brightfield (light is passed through or reflected off a specimen) What is the difference between a TEM and SEM microscope? TEM - 2DSEM -3D What is pH and how is it measure? Measurement of alkalinity or acidity pH= -log [H+] What is an osmometer? A device for measuring the osmotic strength of a solution What is accuracy of a balance? The correctness of the measurement What is precision? The consistency of the instrument What is sterilization? Total destruction of all forms of life Authoricimmy ID72545 Card SetInstrumentation Final DescriptionInstrumentation Final Comprehensive Updated2011-03-13T14:57:28Z Show Answers