Middle class, main patrons of the arts in 19th century
Copper plate treated with light sensitive chemicals; positive image is captured.
Negative produced on film that can be reproduced on paper.
Begins in Paris; less of a style than a commitment to paint the modern world honestly, without turning away from the brutal truths of life for many ordinary people. including subject matter that had previously been considered unworthy or vulgar. Courbet = leader
The here and now; the process. Philosophy, not art movement.
Salon of Refused Art. 1863. Begins the end of the Academy.
Salon des Refuses
Societe anonyme des artistes. Full opposition of the salon. 8 exhibitions between 1874-1886. Visible brush strokes, emphasis on light and its changing qualities, ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as ...unusual visual angles.
En plein air
Cezanne, Seurat, Van Gogh, and Gaugin. No formal organisation. Impressionism's modernist interests and palette, added formal elements.
Optic blending of colors
Pointilism - Divisionism
Influence of Japanese prints on 19th century Western artists.
Literary movement, rejected social consciousness of Realism and interest in nature of Impressionism. Main focus = interior, Man's soul or dreams. Drawn to myths and the macabre.
Powerful, dangerous women
"Beauty transforming the mundane". Focus = strongly architecture/interior. Brought all aspects of art and craft together.
Art for art's sake. Art without morals, story, etc.
Broad concept in which the artist attempts to present the world in an utterly subjective view, radically distortin the representation for emotive effect
Group of artists who appeared to substitute raw energy for draftsmanship and technique. Primary colors dominant. Influenced by Van Gogh and Gaugin. (French for wild beasts) Andre Derain and Henri Matisse.
Based on Nietzche. Anti-establishment. Wanted to build "bridge" to the future, opposed to Bourgeouisie lifestyle. Considered Bohemians. (The Bridge). Emil Nolde. Ernst Kirchner.
Munich. Comes from emblem of Moscow (St. George) Focus=visually expressing a spirituality that resided beneath the surface. Used color as a language.
Der Blaue Reiter
Intellectual pursuit of the formal aspects of art. Looked to Seurat and Cezanne.
In which space is reduced to a flat plane, and the subjects look as if they were sliced into small strips which were then put back together in shifting and overlapping planes and intersecting triangles of empty space. "Broken glass" technique.
Constructed of exterior materials, paper, and other materials. Provokes question of what is "real" and what is not.
Brief period, very spiritual. Cubism and Expressionism (Orpheus - music to calm the beast)
Italian. Used Cubism's formal discoveries to represent figures and machines in motion adn to express a new universal dynamism. The Machine = dawn of a new era (Facism)
Dutch. ("The Style") Sought to create, through abstraction, total environments that were so perfect they embodied a universal harmony. Spiritual
3-level, 6 columns
Flatness of the landscape repeated in the building (Frank Lloyd Wright)
Mass-produced objects which artists give a new idea or new concept
After WWI, many artists end up in Switzerland. Expression of angst, anger, fear. Believed reason and logic had been responsible for war. Therefore, the only route to salvation = the irrational and intuitive.
School of art. Gropius decides art needs direction. Based on utopianism. Also wants well-rounded artists, created broad curriculum.
Most Dadaists move to it. Originally literary movement. Andre Breton started in 1924, met Freud in 1922. Fascinated by unconscious mind's control. "To resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality"
Creating imaginary shapes that look organic
Emergence of African-American artists into mainstream
1st fully American movement to inspire Europe. After WWII. Both Disegno and Colore. An interest in painting, but desire to rebel ahainst the European Modernists. Act of painting as a self-contained expressive exercise. Communicating universal ideas, to paint sublime art on a heroic scale
Activity of the artist
painting large, flat areas of color to evoke more transcendent, contemplative moods in paint.