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What is Rationalism? Who Supported it?
- All knowledge is a priori. Independent of experience.
What is empiricism? Who supported it?
- All knowledge is a posteriori. All knowledge comes from experience.
- John Locke
- George Berkely
- David Hume
Descartes triumphantly declares, “I think, therefore I am!” Explain the significance of this claim and why he thinks it’s true.
Uses this statement as the basis for all of his later arguments for rationalism. How could he be deceived unless he existed in order to be deceived?
- Name the three general metaphysical views and give a
brief definition of each.
- Dualism-There are material and immaterial things
- Materialism-Nothing exists except matter
- Idealism-No material things only minds and ideas exist
Name the three general theories of perception
and give a brief definition of each.
- Naive Realism- mind is directly acquainted with objects of perception
- Representative realism-perception is mediated by ideas
- Idealism-ideas are the objects of perception
- What are primary qualities, and how do they differ from
secondary qualities? Give some examples of each.
Primary qualities are properties that objects have independent of any observer, such as solidity, extension, motion, number and figure. These characteristics convey facts. They exist in the thing itself, can be determined with certainty, and do not rely on subjective judgments. For example, if a ball is round, no one can reasonably argue that it is a triangle
Secondary qualities are properties that produce sensations in observers, such as colour, taste, smell, and sound. They can be described as the effect things have on certain people. Knowledge that comes from secondary qualities does not provide objective facts about things.Primary qualities are measurable aspects of physical reality. Secondary qualities are subjective
- What method does Descartes use in his meditations? Why
does he employ this method?
- To find that which cannot be doubted.