Irene gold General Anatomy

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Irene gold General Anatomy
2011-03-14 16:45:27
NBCE General anatomy

Flashcards based on Irene Gold board review of anatomy
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  1. What are branchial arches?
    pharyngeal arch - pharyngeal pouches from lateral walls of the anterior portion of the foregut form branchial arches (Arches are NOT the same as Pouches!)
  2. What is the first arch?
    CN V (mandibular), forms on day 22 --> muscles of mastication (Temporalis, Internal pterygoid, Masseter, External ptyergoid "TIME"), tensor tympani, tensor veli palantini, mandible, maleus, incus
  3. What is the 2nd arch?
    CN VII (hyoid), forms on day 24 --> muscles of facial expression, stylohyoid, stapedius, posterior belly of digastric, stapes, styloid process, cornu of hyoid
  4. What is the 3rd arch?
    CN IX (glossopharyngeal) --> stylopharyngeus (only muscle that CN IX is motor for), body of the hyoid, greater cornu, thymus
  5. What is the 4th or 5th arch?
    CN X --> cricothyroid, levator veli palatini, muscles of the larynx, laryngeal cartilages
  6. What is the 6th arch?
    same as 4th and includes recurrent laryngeal nerve
  7. What structures come from the mesoderm?
    • notochord --> nucleus pulposus
    • Mesodermal somites:
    • slcerotome --> membranous vertebral column
    • myotome --> muscle (somatic - skeletal, splanchnic - smooth, epimere - dorsal/posterior, hypomere - ventral/anterior)
    • dermatome - nerves
  8. What is chondrification? ossification?
    chondrification is mesoderm being replaced by cartilage, ossification is cartilage being replaced by bone (primary occurs before birth, secondary after birth)
  9. What is the foregut? midgut? hindgut?
    foregut is from mouth to beginning of the duodenum, midgut is from duodenum to the first 2/3 of transverse colon, hindgut is from last 1/3 of transverse colon to the anal canal
  10. What does the vagus nerve supply? S2 to 4?
    vagus is parasympathetic supply to the first 2/3 of transverse colon, S2 to 4 is parasympathetic to the last 1/3 of transverse colon
  11. What are the embryonic shunts?
    foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, present in the fourth to eighth weeks of development
  12. What are the three germ layers?
    mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm
  13. What does the endoderm give rise to?
    epithelial parts of the trachea, bronchi, lungs, pharynx, thyroid, tympanic cavity, pharyngotympanic tube, tonsils, parathyroid; epithelium of GI tract, liver, pancreas, urinary bladder and
  14. What does the mesoderm give rise to?
    • Head --> skull muslces and connective tissue, teeth
    • paraxial --> muscles of trunk, skeleton, dermis, connective tissue
    • intermediate --> urogenital system including gonads, ducts and accessory glands
    • lateral --> connective tissue and muscle of viscera and limbs, serous membranes of pleura, pericardium and peritoneum, blood and lymph cells, cardiovascular and lymphatic system, spleen, adrenal cortex
  15. What does the ectoderm give rise to?
    • surface ectoderm --> epidermis, hair, nails, cutaneous and mammary glands, anterior pituitary gland, enamel of teeth, inner ear, lens
    • neuroectoderm:
    • nerual crest --> cranial and sensory ganglia and nerves, medualla of suprarenal gland, pigment cells, branchial arch cartilages, head mesenchyme
    • neural tube --> central nervous system, retina, pineal gland, posterior pituitary
  16. What are the cell types?
    • Simple - one layer - squamous (lines blood vessels, lymph), cuboidal and columnar (lines glands and digestive tract)
    • pseudostratified columnar - lines respiratory tract
    • Stratified - several layers - squamous (lines oral cavity, esophagus, rectum, vagina), columnar (reproductive tract), transitional (urinary tract)
  17. Where are simple squamous cells?
    alveoli, capillaries, blood and lymph vessels, allows air diffusion
  18. Where are stratified squamous cells?
    vagina, esophagus, skin, oral cavity, anal canal "satisfying stratified"
  19. Where are simple cuboidal cells?
    kidney tubules, choroid plexus, glands and digestive tract - CSF production, ependymal cells
  20. Where are transitional cells?
    Urinary bladder, ureters, kidney - allows expansion
  21. Where are simple columnar cells?
    stomach, intestinal tract, glands and digestive tract
  22. Where are stratified columnar?
    reproductive tract
  23. Where are pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells?
    respiratory tract (cilia = filter)
  24. What are the three planes of the body?
    coronal (divide anterior from posterior), sagittal (divide left from right), transverse/horizontal (divide top from bottom)
  25. What is the cervical curve of the spine? Body shape? Canal?
    secondary curve which forms when baby begins to lift head, circular body, triangular canal
  26. What is the thoracic curve of the spine? body shape? canal?
    present at birth, heart shaped body, oval or circular canal
  27. What is the lumbar curve? body shape? canal?
    secondary curve, forms when begin crawling, kidney shaped body, triangular/trefoil canal, apex is at L3, L5 spinous is the smallest
  28. What laryngeal cartilages are paired?
    thyroid (C4-C5), cricoid (C6) and epiglottis are single; arytenoids (forms attachment for vocal cords), corniculates, cuneiforms are paired
  29. What ducts are present in the GI tract?
    Stenson's (opposite 2nd molar - parotid gland), Wharton's (submandibular gland), Bartholin's (sublingual), wirsung (main pancreatic), santorini (accessory pancreatic)
  30. What are the stages of mitosis?
    interphase (resting), prophase (nuclear membrane disappears), metaphase (chromosomes toward poles), anaphase (chromatids toward poles), telophase (separation of chromosmones)
  31. What are the boundaries of the anterior triangle? What are the contents?
    SCM, midline/neck, inferior border of mandible are the boundaries, salivary glands, larynx, thyroid glands are inside
  32. What are the boundaries of the carotid triangle? What are the contents?
    SCM, posterior digastric muscle and omohyoid are the boundaries, carotid arteries, inferior jugular vein, vagus nerve are inside
  33. What are the boundaries of the submandibular triangle? What are the contents?
    Digastric muscle (both parts) and inferior border of mandible, salivary glands are inside
  34. What are the boundaries of the muscular triangle? What are the contents?
    SCM, omohyoid muscle, midline of neck are boundaries, larynx, trachea, thyroid are inside
  35. What are the boundaries of the suprahyoid triangle? What are the contents?
    digastric muscle and hyoid bone are the boundaries, muslces of the floor of the mouth, salivary glands and ducts are inside
  36. What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle? What are the contents?
    SCM, trapezius muscle and clavicle are boundaries, nerves and vessels are inside
  37. What are the boundaries of the occipital triangle? What are the contents?
    SCM, trapezius muscle, omohyoid muscle are boundaries, cervical plexus and accessory nerve are inside
  38. What are the boundaries of the subclavian triangle? What are the contents?
    SCM, omohyoid muscle, clavicle are boundaries, brachial plexus and subclavian artery are inside
  39. What are the boundaries of the suboccipital triangle? What are the contents?
    RCP major, RCP minor, Oblique capitus superior, oblique capitus inferior are boundaries, suboccipital nerve is dorsal primary ramus of C1, vertebral artery are inside
  40. What organs are retroperitoneal?
    kidneys, adrenal glands, colon (ascending and descending), most of duodenum, aorta, Inferior vena cava and pancreas
  41. What is mesentery? ligaments? omentum? epiploic foramen?
    • mesentery - connects organs to the posterior abdominal wall
    • ligaments - connects one organ to another
    • greater omentum - connects the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon
    • lesser omentum - connects the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver
    • epiploic foramen - opening between the greater and lesser peritoneal sacs, also called foramen of Winslow
  42. What is in the anterior mediastinum?
    no major structures, areolar tissue and lymph nodes
  43. What is in the middle mediastinum?
    heart and pericardium, ascending aorta, lower 1/2 of the superior vena cava, phrenic nerve, pulmonary artery and vein
  44. What is in the superior mediastinum?
    trachea, esophagus, thymus, arch of aorta, superior vena cava superior 1/2, thoracic duct, vagus nerve, cardiac nerve, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve
  45. What is in the posterior mediastinum?
    thoracic and descending aorta, carini, bronchi, esophagus, azygous and hemiazygous veins, throacic duct, vagus nerve, splanchnic nerve
  46. What is the sinus venarum? fossa ovalis? pectinate muscle? chordae tendinae? papillary muscles?
    • sinus venarum - smooth space between openings of the inferior and superior vena cava
    • fossa ovalis - depression on the interatrial septum, a remnant of foramen ovale
    • pectinate muscles - comblike ridges only found in the atria
    • chordae tendinae - tendinous strands attached to papillary muscles and valve cusps
    • papillary muscles - processes off the muscular walls of ventricles
  47. What fissures are in the lungs?
    right lung has horizontal fissure (at T6 vertebral level), right and left lung both have oblique fissures
  48. Where does air travel in the lungs?
    trachea --> bronchus (1, 2, 3) --> bronchioles --> respiratory bronchioles --> alveolar duct --> alveolar sac --> alveolus
  49. How does the right primary bronchi compare to the left?
    the right is shorter, more vertical and broader
  50. What does omo mean? mylo? geni?
    omo means shoulder, mylo means molar, geni means chin
  51. What are the suprahyoid muscles?
    Mylohyoid, Stylohyoid, Geniohyoid, Digastric "MSG Die"
  52. What are the infrahyoid muscles?
    Thyrohyoid, Omohyoid, Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid "TOSS"
  53. What are the muscles of mastication?
    Temporalis, Masseter, Internal pterygoid (medial pterygoid), External (lateral -depresses the jaw) pterygoid
  54. What are the hamstring muslces?
    biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
  55. What are the triceps surae?
    Gastrocnemius, Achilles tendon, Soleus "step on the GAS"
  56. What are the rotator cuff muscles?
    Supraspinatus (abduction, supracapular nerve), Infraspinatus (external rotation, suprascapular nerve), Teres minor (external rotation, axillary nerve), Subscapularis (internal rotation, subscapularis nerve) "SITS"
  57. What nerve innervates the Latissimus dorsi?
  58. What nerve innervates the Serratus Anterior?
    Long Thoracic (SALT)
  59. What muscles does the dorsal scapular innervate?
    rhomboids and levator scapulae
  60. What muscles does the suprascapular nerve innervate?
    supraspinatus and infraspinatus
  61. What muscles does the axillary nerve innervate?
    deltoid and teres minor
  62. Biceps
    Musculocutaneous nerve, two heads (long and short), flexion and supination of arm
  63. Coracobrachialis
    Musculocutaneous nerve, adduction of arm
  64. Triceps
    Radial nerve, three heads (long, medial, lateral), extension and abduction of arm, extension of forearm
  65. Brachialis
    Musculocutaneous and radial nerve, flexion of forearm
  66. What muscles are in the anterior compartment of the arm?
    biceps and coracobrachialis
  67. What muscles are in the posterior compartment of the arm?
    Triceps and brachialis
  68. Brachioradialis
    radial nerve, flexion of forearm
  69. Flexor digitorum sup.
    Median nerve, flexion of fingers and wrist
  70. Pronator quadratus
    Anterior interosseous nerve, pronation of forearm
  71. Pronator teres
    Median nerve, Pronation of forearm
  72. Flexor carpi radialis
    Median nerve, flexion and abduction of wrist
  73. Flexor carpi ulnaris
    Ulnar nerve, flexion and adduction of wrist
  74. Flexor digitorum profundus
    Median and ulnar nerve, flexion of fingers and wrist
  75. Flexor pollicus longus
    Median nerve, flexion of thumb and wrist
  76. Palmaris longis
    median nerve, flexion of wrist and tension of palmar fascia
  77. What muscles are in the anterior compartment of the forearm?
    Brachioradialis, Pronator quadratus and teres, palmaris longus and flexor muscles
  78. Aconeus
    radial nerve, extension of forearm
  79. Supinator
    Radial nerve, supination of forearm
  80. Abductor pollicus longus
    radial nerve, abduction and extension of thumb, abduction of wrist
  81. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
    Radial nerve, Extesnion and abduction of wrist
  82. Extesnor carpi radialis longus
    radial nerve, extension and abduction of wrist
  83. Extensor carpi ulnaris
    radial nerve, extesion and adduction of wrist
  84. Extensor digitorum minimi
    radial nerve, extension of little finger and wrist
  85. Extensor digitorum
    radial nerve, extension of fingers and wrist
  86. Extensor pollicus brevis
    radial nerve, extension and abduction of the thumb
  87. Extensor pollicus longus
    radial nerve, extension of thumb
  88. What muscles are in the posterior compartment of the forearm?
    Anconeus, supinator, abductor pollicus longus, extesnor muscles
  89. Quadriceps
    Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, femoral nerve, flex thigh, extend leg
  90. Sartorius
    fermoral nerve, flex thigh and leg, laterally rotate thigh and medially rotate leg
  91. What are the muscles of the anterior thigh?
    Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis), sartorius
  92. Adductor brevis
    obturator nerve, adduction, flexion and lateral rotation of thigh
  93. Adductor longus
    obturator nerve, adduction, flexion and lateral rotation of thigh
  94. Adductor magnus
    obturator and tibial nerves, adduction, extension and lateral rotation of thigh
  95. Gracilis
    obturator nerve, adduction of thigh, flex leg
  96. Pectinius
    obturator and femoral nerves, adduction and flexion of thigh
  97. What muscles are in the medial thigh?
    adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, gracilis, pectinius
  98. Biceps femoris
    Long head (tibial nerve) and short head (peroneal nerve), flexion and lateral rotation of leg, extension of thigh
  99. Semimembranous
    tibial nerve, flexion and medial rotation of leg, extension of thigh
  100. Semitendinous
    tibial nerve, flexion and medial roatation of leg, extension of thigh
  101. What muscles are in the posterior thigh?
    biceps femoris, semimembranosis, semitendinosis
  102. Tensor fascia lata (TFL)
    Superior gluteal nerve, tense fascia lata
  103. Gluteus maximus
    inferior gluteal nerve, extension and abduction and lateral rotation of thigh
  104. Gluteaus medius
    superior gluteal nerve, abduction and medial rotation of thigh
  105. Gluteus minimus
    superior gluteal nerve, abduction and medial rotation of thigh
  106. What muscles are in the lateral thigh?
    TFL, gluteus muscles
  107. Extesnsor digitorum longus
    deep peroneus nerve, extension of 4 lateral toes, dorsiflexion and eversion of foot
  108. Extensor hallicus longus
    deep peroneus nerve, extension of big toe, dorsiflexion and inverion of foot
  109. Tibialis anterior
    deep peroneus nerve, dorsiflex and invert foot
  110. Peroneus tertius
    deep peroneus nerve, dorsiflex and evert foot
  111. What muscles are in the anterior lower leg?
    Extensor digitorum and hallicus longus, tibialis anterior, peroneus tertius
  112. Peroneus brevis
    superificial peroneus nerve, eversion and flexion of foot
  113. peroneus longus
    superficial peroneal nerve, eversion and flexion of foot
  114. What muscles are in the lateral compartment of the lower leg?
    Peroneus brevis and longus
  115. Gastrocnemius
    Tibial nerve, Plantar flexion of foot, flexion of leg
  116. Plantaris
    Tibial nerve, plantar flexion of foot, flexion of leg
  117. Soleus
    Tibial nerve, Plantar flexion of foot
  118. Flexor digitorum longus
    Tibial nerve, flexion of 4 lateral toes, plantar flexion and inversion of foot
  119. Flexor hallicus longus
    Medial plantar nerve, flexion of big toe, plantar flexion and inversion of foot
  120. Popliteus
    tibial nerve, flexion and medial rotation of the leg
  121. Tibialis posterior
    tibial nerve, plantar flexion and inversion of foot
  122. What muscles are in the posterior lower leg?
    Gastrocnemius, Plantaris, Soleus, Flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallicus longus, popliteus, tibialis posterior
  123. What muscles are in the pelvic diaphragm?
    pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, coccygeus, puborectalis, piriformis
  124. Epiphysis
    end of long bones
  125. Metaphysis
    between epiphysis and diaphysis - most vascular growth
  126. Diaphysis
    Shaft of long bone
  127. Epiphyseal plate
    cartilage between end and shaft of bone
  128. Osteoblast
    bone forming cell derived from mesenchyme
  129. Osteoclast
    multinucleated cell that breaks down bone
  130. Lamella
    concentric matrix around osteoblast
  131. Lacuna
    small space or cavity around cells (contains osteocytes), also called lacuna of Howship
  132. Trabeculae
    fibrous strands in medullary compartment that are interconnected
  133. Haversian system
    canal and lamellae concentrically arranged - basic structural unit of compact bone
  134. volkman's canal
    transverse canal in bone - contains nutrient artery
  135. Clavicle
    lateral 1/3 is trapezius attachment, lateral end is acromion process, first bone to begin ossification, trasmits force to the arm, trapezoid line and conoid tubercle are also part of clavicle
  136. Scapula
    spine of scapula at the superior end, root of spine is at T3, coracoid and acromion process and supraglenoid and infraglenoid tubercle are also on scapula
  137. Humerus
    anatomical neck is immediately distal to the head, surgical neck is immediately distal to the anatomical neck, deltoid tuberosity is on the lateral surface of the humerus (deltoid attachment), capitulum, trochlea, lesser tubercle, greater tubercle
  138. Radius
    head articulates with the capitulum of humerus, radial tuberosity, styloid process (part of wrist)
  139. Ulna
    coronoid process, olecranon process, ulnar tuberosity (trochlear notch), head and styloid are part of wrist, radial notch
  140. Male vs. female pelvis
    male pelvic bowl is wider, obturator formaen is circular, upside down martini glass; female pelvic bowl is wider, obturator foramen is cat eyes, upside down margarita glass
  141. Femur
    adductor tubercle on the medial femoral condyle (adductor magnus attaches here), lesser trochanter is the insertion for psoas major muscle, fovea capitus is a small indentation in the head of the femur, the femoral head is directed anterior, superior and medial, greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, medial and lateral condyles
  142. Tibia
    medial and lateral condyles, medial malleolus, intercondylar eminence and soleal line (posterior tibia)
  143. Fibula
    too short to make up part of the knee joint, lateral malleolus, head of tibia articulates, apex
  144. What are the carpal bones?
    Scaphoid (proximal row, by thumb, also called navicular), Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform (seasmoid bone), Trapezium (greater multangular, distal row), Trapezoid (lesser multangular), Capitate, Hamate, "Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle"
  145. Joints of the hand - node - disease
    • DIP - Heberden's - OA
    • PIP - Bouchard's - RA or OA
    • MCP - Haygarth's - RA
  146. Bones of the foot
    Talus (superior), Calcaneus, Navicular (medial), Cuneiforms (medial, middle, lateral), Cuboid (most lateral bone of foot)
  147. Merti's joint
    between tibia and talus
  148. Main ankle joint
    talocrural joint
  149. Shoulder ligaments
    • Acromioclavicular - acromion --> clavicle
    • Coracoacromial - coracoid --> acromion
    • Coracoclavicular - Conoid and trapezoid (more lateral) ligaments
  150. Ligaments of the foot
    • Deltoid ligament - medial malleolus --> tarsus (talus, navicular, calcaneous) (tibiotalar, tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneuos)
    • Lateral ligament - lateral malleolus --> tarsus (most commonly injured (anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular, calcaneofibular)
    • Spring ligament - sustentaculum tali --> navicular (plantar calcaneonavicular)
  151. Ligaments of the spine
    • ALL (anterior longitudinal ligament) - front of anterior bodies from atlas to occiput = anterior atlanto-occipital
    • PLL (posterior longitudinal ligament) - back of vertebral bodies (in anterior portion of canal), wider in cervicals, thinner in lumbars, becomes sacrococcygeal, from C2 to occiput = tectoral membrane
    • LF (ligamentum flavum) - lamina to lamina (posterior portion of canal), high elastic fiber content
    • IS (interspinous) - between the spinous processes
    • SS (supraspinous) - from SP to SP, from C7 to occiput = ligamentum nuchae
    • TL (transverse ligament) - holds dens in fovea dentalis of atlas (fovea dentalis is on post. side of ant. tubercle of atlas), part of cruciate ligament
    • CL (cruciate ligament) - runs from occiput to body of C2 and includes TL
    • AL (alar ligament) - from sides of dens to occiput, limits rotation, also called "check ligament"
    • AD (apical dental) - from apex of dens to foramen magnum of occiput
  152. Left coronary artery branches
    Muscular, Anterior interventricular, Circumflex "MAC"
  153. Right coronary artery branches
    Muscular, Posterior interventricular, Marginal
  154. Coronary veins (7)
    Great cardiac, middle cardiac, marginal, anterior cardiac, small cardiac, oblique, coronary sinus (most veins empty into this sinus)
  155. Thoracic aorta supplies
    bronchial, esophageal, posterior intercostal arteries --> pharynx and lower respiratory tract
  156. Abdominal aorta supplies
    left gastric, splenic and hepatic arteries (celiac trunk) --> stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas, spleen
  157. Superior mesenteric artery supplies
    midgut, right side of abdomen, small intestine, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, first 2/3 transverse colon
  158. Inferior mesenteric artery
    hindgut, left side of abdomen, last 1/3 of transverse colon, descending colon, rectum, anus
  159. Internal iliac artery supplies
    bladder and urethra
  160. Pudental artery supplies
  161. What drains into the superior vena cava (SVC)?
    azygous (right abdomen, right and left intercostals and lumbars, begins at L1-2) and hemiazygous (drains left abdomen, begins L1-2, crosses over at T8 to join azygous vein)
  162. What drains into the inferior vena cava (IVC)?
    external and internal iliac, common iliac (testicles/ovaries, phrenic, suprarenal, renal, hepatic)
  163. What does subclavian artery become?
    axillary --> brachial (--> profunda brachii) --> radial (--> deep palmar arches) and ulnar (--> superificial palmar arches)
  164. What does the axillary artery branch into?
    superior thoracic, thoraco-acromial, lateral thoracic, subscapular, anterior and posterior circumflex humeral
  165. Veins of the arm
    Basilic (medial arm), Median (middle arm), and cephalic (lateral arm) all drain into brachial vein --> axillary --> subclavian --> brachiocephalic
  166. Arteries of the legs
    • L4 abdominal aorta --> common iliac --> internal (supplies pelvis) and external iliac --> femoral --> popliteal --> anterior and posterior tibial
    • Anterior tibial (front of leg) --> dorsal pedis --> arcuate
    • Posterior tibial (back of leg) --> peroneal --> medial and lateral plantar --> plantar arch
  167. Deep veins of the legs
    Medial and lateral plantar --> posterior and anterior tibial --> popliteal --> femoral --> external iliac --> common iliac --> IVC
  168. Superificial veins of the legs
    • Small saphenous (lateral leg) --> popliteal
    • Great saphenous (medial and posterior leg) --> femoral
  169. Lateral cord of brachial plexus
    Anterior division of upper and middle trunk (C5-7) --> ulnar and median nerve
  170. Medial cord of brachial plexus
    Anterior division of inferior trunk (C7-T1) --> musculocutaneous and lateral head/median nerve
  171. Posterior cord of brachial plexus
    Posterior divison of all trunks (C5-T1) --> axillary, radial, upper subscapular, middle subscapular (thoracodorsal), lower subscapular nerves
  172. Lumbar plexus
    T12 to L4 --> Ilioinguinal (L1), genitofemoral (L2), lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (L2,3), femoral (L2,3,4), Obturator (L2,3,4) nerves
  173. Sacral plexus
    L4-S3 --> common peroneal nerve and tibial nerve (together make sciatic nerve)