Miller and Banuazizi showed that by using rewards rats could be trained to alter heart rate and intestinal contractions
First studies which demonstrated that animals could be conditioned to contro autonomic responses
What are Dollard and Miller's 3 Conflict Types
approach-approach: two positive choices, but only one can be chosen (ice cream or brownie)
approach-avoidance: one wants something appealing, but fears being punished for obtaining it (e.g. fearing rejection for a proposed date)
avoidance-avoidance: lose-lose situation
Types of Aging
Biological aging: involves how body functions and changes over time
Anabolism: body building to peak potential
Catabolism: body's slow deterioration from peak
Psychological aging: one's perception of personal age
Social aging: how one's chronological age is affected by societal and cultural context and is effected by vocation and SES.
Central Nervous System
Hindbrain: Life maintenance and survival functions
Medulla oblongata: regulates heart and breathing
Cerebellum: regulates balance
Pons: connects left and right cerebellum
Reticular activating system: regulates arousal and attention
Midbrain: connects hindbrain and forebrain. Controls eye muscles, relays auditory and visual info to the brain's centers for higher level thinking
Forebrain: responsible for higher order behavior and conscious thought.
Cerebrum consists of:
controls right side of body, language and writing, logical thought
right hemisphere: controls left side of body, muscle abilities, imagination, emotional expression
corpus callosium: nerve cells that connect the two hemispheres, and integrate cognitive, emotional and bodily functions
Cerebral Cortex: Covers the two hemispheres, memory, concentration, problem-solving abilities, muscle coordination. 4 lobes:
Occiptal lobe - helps brain interpret sensory info through the eyes
Parietal lobe - Controls spatial reasoning and sense of touch
Temporal lobe - Responsible for hearing and storage of permanent memory
Frontal lobe - Regulates sense of smell, body control, and movement
Autosomal diseases: genetic disorders that involve a chromosome other than the sex chromosome. Examples:
Phenylketonuria: inability to process phenylanine. Leads to damage of CNS.
Sickle Cell Anemia: causes abnormal shaping of red blood cells leading to oxygen deprivation, pain, tissue damage, anemia, and pnemonia. 50% die by age 20. 1 in 500 AA births.
Tay-Sachs Disease: inability to metabolize fatty substances in neural tissues, leads to degeneration of CNS. No treatment, Death by age 4 typical. 1 in 3500 births to Jews and Euros.
X-linked diseases: passed on by maternal X-chromosome to males. Examples: Male pattern baldness, hemophilia
Sex Chromosomal Diseases: genetic anomaly on the sex-determining pair of chromosomes. Examples:
Turner syndrome: All or part of the second X chromosome is missing. 1/5,000 female births. Underdeveloped ovaries, incomplete sexual development at puberty, short, webbed neck, impaired spacial intelligence.
Klinefelter's syndrome: An extra X chromosome on the XY pair. 1/1000 male births. Unusually tall, high amount of body fat, incomplete sex dev at puberty, usually sterile.
Cognition and memory
Sensory memory (trace memory): all environmental stimuli to which one is exposed at any given moment in time
Short term memory
Long term memory
echoic storage: auditory information
iconic storage: visual information
Yekes-Dodson law: memory and performance are optimized at a moderate state of arousal
Why do people forget?
Retrieval theory: info is held in long-term storage forever, but we often have insufficient cues to retrieve the information
Decay of memory theory: traces of info in memory decay over time, and eventually disappears forever
Interference theory: learned info is inhibited by other learning experiences
Retroactive inhibition: new info interferes with previously learned info
Proactive inhibition: Old info interferes with newly learned info
More about cognitive development
Cognitive dissonance: conflict between old info and new info
Confirmatory bias: likelihood to screen for info that matches previously held beliefs
imaginary audience: adolescent belief that everyone is watching
Personal table: adolescent belief of absolute uniqueness (things only happen to others)
Cognitive abilities decline after age 70
Creativity involves convergent and divergent thinking
What is attribution theory?
Explains why things happen. People assign attributes (reasons) to outcomes and events
Stability: stable causes result in hopelessness, unstable causes lead to hope
Locus: internal foci-take responsibility, external attributions lie outside the individual
Control: Controllable vs. uncontrollable
Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence
Crystallized: includes verbal and math capabilities and experiences that are learned
Fluid: includes nonverbal problem solving and pattern recognition
Ego Development Theory of Jane Loevinger
Ego development stage theory that explained human personality developmental progression and fixation: