Human Growth

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asherry25
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Human Growth
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2011-03-13 22:28:49
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Cards for human growth and development
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  1. Freud's Psychoanalytic Stages
    • Oral: Birth-1.5 years
    • Anal: 1.5-3 years
    • Phallic: 3-6 years
    • Latency: 6-puberty
    • Genital: puberty on
  2. Erik Erikson
    • Neo-Freudian
    • Believes social interaction drives human behavior and personality development
    • Epigenetic Principle: we develop through predetermined unfolding of our personalities in 8 stages
  3. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
    • Trust vs. Mistrust (age 0-1): Child learns environment can supply basic needs
    • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (ages 1-3): Child develops sense of free will and a sense of regret for inappropriate use of self-control
    • Initiative vs. Guilt (ages 3-6): Child learns to begin action, to explore and feel remorse for actions
    • Industry vs. Inferiority (ages 7-12): child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others
    • Identity vs. Role Confusion (ages 12-18): Adolescent develops sense of self
    • Intimacy vs. Isolation (20s): Develops ability to give and receive love. Makes long term commitment to relationships
    • Generativity vs. Stagnation (late 20's to 50's): Adult develops interest in guiding the next generation
    • Ego Integrity vs. Despair (50s and beyond): Develops acceptance of life as it was lived and important of people in life
  4. Robert Peck's Final Stage of Development
  5. Piaget's Cognitive Theory
    • Children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through 4 stages of cognitive development
    • Two processes underlie this cognitive construction: organization and adaptation
    • Two kinds of adaptation: assimilation (incorporate new info into existing knowledge) and accommodation (adjust to the new info)
    • Schema: representation in the mind of a set of perceptions/ideas/actions that go together
    • Conservation: objects stay the same even when they look different (e.g. volume)
  6. Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Sensori-motor (birth-2): differentiates self from objects, aacts intentionally, achieves object permanence
    • Pre-Operational (2-7): Language, thinking still egocentric, groups items by a single feature, believes in animism (inanimate objects have lifelike qualities)
    • Concrete Operational (7-11): logical thought, conservation of number, mass and weight, ckassifies objects by several features and can order items
    • Formal Operational (11+): can test hypothesis systematically, concerned with hypothetical, the future and ideological problems
  7. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Cognitive Theory
    • Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
    • No stages
    • Believed that cognitive process was facilitated by language development and occured in a social context
    • Language development:
    • Social speech (0-3): aimed at controlling the actions of others in the environment
    • Egocentric (3-7): talk out loud to guide their own actions
    • Private/inner speech (7+): internalized thoughts that guide own behavior
  8. Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding (Vygotsky)
    • ZPD: Gap between what children are able to learn on their own and what they are potentially able to learn with help
    • Scaffolding: Supports that must be put in place to help children learn in order to reach their potential
  9. Who is the founder of classical conditioning, and what is it?
    • Ivan Pavlov
    • A learning theory
    • Learning process that occures through associations between an envionemental stimulus and a naturally occuring stimulus
    • Utilizes US (UCS), CS, UR, CR
    • Part of all forms of animal training
    • Helps form good habits and beak bad ones
    • In education, phobias and anxiety (e.g. math anxiety, school phobia), candy for right answers
  10. US/CS
    UR/CR
    • Unconditioned stimulus: unconditionally, naturally and automatically triggers a response, e.g. smell of food (In Pavlov, meat - in the US, we eat a lot of meat)
    • Unconditioned Response: occurs naturally in response to the US, e.g. hunger pains (In Pavlov, salivating)
    • Conditioned Stimulus: Neutral stimulus that, after being associated with the US, comes to trigger a CR (Pavlov: bell)
    • Conditioned Response: learned response to the previously neutral stimulus (Pavlov: salivation)
    • Ideal time b/w CS and US: .5 seconds
    • Delay conditioning: CS us delayed until the US occurs
    • Trace conditioning: CS will terminate prior to onset of the US.
    • Higher order conditioning: When a new stimulus (e.g. a light) is paired with the CS (bell) and the new stimulus takes on the power of the CS
    • Experimental neurosis: Emotional disturbance b/c it is not possible to distinguish b/w US's.
    • Respondent behavior deals with reflexes
  11. What are the 4 processes underlying classical conditioning?
    • Acquisition: initial learning of the conditioned response (dog learning to salivate at bell)
    • Extinction: elimination of the conditioned response by repeatedly presenting the CS without the UCS (bell w/o food, dog will eventually stop salivating)
    • Generalization (aka second order conditioning): After an animal has learned a CR to one stimulus, it may also respond to similar stimuli w/o further training (e.g. similiar bells)
    • Discrimination (aka stimulus differentiation): learns to produce a CR to one stimulus but not another stimulus that is similar (a horn won't work)
  12. Who else practiced classical conditioning?
    • John Watson: Little Albert, kid+white rat
    • Joseph Wolpe: systematic densitization,
    • reciprocal inhibition: a person cannot engage in two mutually exclusive events simultaneiously (e.g. relaxed and anxiou)
    • Counterconditioning: a strong pleasant stimulus is paired with a weak aversive stimulus
    • Flooding
  13. Who is the founder of operant conditioning, and what is it?
    • B.F. Skinner (also Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect)
    • a learning theory
    • Also called instrumental learning
    • A response is either strengthened or diminished because of the consequence that follows
    • Changes in behavior are the result of an ind's response to stimuli that occur in the environment
    • Applied in clinical setting, teaching, instructional development
  14. Reinforcement and Punishment
    • Positive reinforcement: adding something, behavior increases
    • Negative reinforcement: taking something away, behavior increases
    • Punishment: behavior decreases temporarily
    • Premack principle: an efficient reinforcer is what the client likes to do.
    • Primary reinforcers: satisfy a primary need (e.g. food, rest)
    • Secondary reinforcers: anything that becomes associated with a primary need, e.g. money
    • Back-up reinforcers: an item or activity which can be purchased using tokens
    • ratio scheules: every nth time
    • (lead to quickest acquisition of response)
    • variable ratio: averages every nth time; high response, slowest to become extinct
    • fixed interval: every X minutes; low rates of response
    • variable interbal: varied times, maximum response rates
  15. Social Learning Theory
    • Albert Bandura
    • People learn through observation, imitation and modeling
    • Effective modeling has four components: attention, retentoin, reproduction and motivation
    • Modeling is more effective is observers and models are of similar demo or have positive interpersonal attributes
    • Self efficacy: individual's confidence in self to perform a given task/behavior
  16. Dollard and Miller Approach (Social Learning)
    • John Dollard and Neal Miller
    • Drive/incentive theorists
    • Believed that anxiety and psychological disturbances were learned from experiences
    • Habits: predictable behavior, reduce primary and secondary drives
    • Primary Drives: innate drives (thirst, hunger)
    • Secondary Drives: learned drives (parental approval)
    • Miller and Banuazizi showed that by using rewards rats could be trained to alter heart rate and intestinal contractions
    • First studies which demonstrated that animals could be conditioned to contro autonomic responses
  17. What are Dollard and Miller's 3 Conflict Types
    • approach-approach: two positive choices, but only one can be chosen (ice cream or brownie)
    • approach-avoidance: one wants something appealing, but fears being punished for obtaining it (e.g. fearing rejection for a proposed date)
    • avoidance-avoidance: lose-lose situation
  18. Types of Aging
    • Biological aging: involves how body functions and changes over time
    • Anabolism: body building to peak potential
    • Catabolism: body's slow deterioration from peak
    • Psychological aging: one's perception of personal age
    • Social aging: how one's chronological age is affected by societal and cultural context and is effected by vocation and SES.
  19. Central Nervous System
    • Hindbrain: Life maintenance and survival functions
    • Medulla oblongata: regulates heart and breathing
    • Cerebellum: regulates balance
    • Pons: connects left and right cerebellum
    • Reticular activating system: regulates arousal and attention
    • Midbrain: connects hindbrain and forebrain. Controls eye muscles, relays auditory and visual info to the brain's centers for higher level thinking
    • Forebrain: responsible for higher order behavior and conscious thought.
    • Cerebrum consists of:
    • left hemisphere: controls right side of body, language and writing, logical thought
    • right hemisphere: controls left side of body, muscle abilities, imagination, emotional expression
    • corpus callosium: nerve cells that connect the two hemispheres, and integrate cognitive, emotional and bodily functions
    • Cerebral Cortex: Covers the two hemispheres, memory, concentration, problem-solving abilities, muscle coordination. 4 lobes:
    • Occiptal lobe - helps brain interpret sensory info through the eyes
    • Parietal lobe - Controls spatial reasoning and sense of touch
    • Temporal lobe - Responsible for hearing and storage of permanent memory
    • Frontal lobe - Regulates sense of smell, body control, and movement
  20. Genetic Disorders
    • Autosomal diseases: genetic disorders that involve a chromosome other than the sex chromosome. Examples:
    • Phenylketonuria: inability to process phenylanine. Leads to damage of CNS.
    • Sickle Cell Anemia: causes abnormal shaping of red blood cells leading to oxygen deprivation, pain, tissue damage, anemia, and pnemonia. 50% die by age 20. 1 in 500 AA births.
    • Tay-Sachs Disease: inability to metabolize fatty substances in neural tissues, leads to degeneration of CNS. No treatment, Death by age 4 typical. 1 in 3500 births to Jews and Euros.
    • X-linked diseases: passed on by maternal X-chromosome to males. Examples: Male pattern baldness, hemophilia
    • Sex Chromosomal Diseases: genetic anomaly on the sex-determining pair of chromosomes. Examples:
    • Turner syndrome: All or part of the second X chromosome is missing. 1/5,000 female births. Underdeveloped ovaries, incomplete sexual development at puberty, short, webbed neck, impaired spacial intelligence.
    • Klinefelter's syndrome: An extra X chromosome on the XY pair. 1/1000 male births. Unusually tall, high amount of body fat, incomplete sex dev at puberty, usually sterile.
  21. Cognition and memory
    • Sensory memory (trace memory): all environmental stimuli to which one is exposed at any given moment in time
    • Short term memory
    • Long term memory
    • echoic storage: auditory information
    • iconic storage: visual information
    • Yekes-Dodson law: memory and performance are optimized at a moderate state of arousal
  22. Why do people forget?
    • Retrieval theory: info is held in long-term storage forever, but we often have insufficient cues to retrieve the information
    • Decay of memory theory: traces of info in memory decay over time, and eventually disappears forever
    • Interference theory: learned info is inhibited by other learning experiences
    • Retroactive inhibition: new info interferes with previously learned info
    • Proactive inhibition: Old info interferes with newly learned info
  23. More about cognitive development
    • Cognitive dissonance: conflict between old info and new info
    • Confirmatory bias: likelihood to screen for info that matches previously held beliefs
    • imaginary audience: adolescent belief that everyone is watching
    • Personal table: adolescent belief of absolute uniqueness (things only happen to others)
    • Cognitive abilities decline after age 70
    • Creativity involves convergent and divergent thinking
  24. What is attribution theory?
    • Fritz Heider
    • Explains why things happen. People assign attributes (reasons) to outcomes and events
    • Stability: stable causes result in hopelessness, unstable causes lead to hope
    • Locus: internal foci-take responsibility, external attributions lie outside the individual
    • Control: Controllable vs. uncontrollable
  25. Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence
    • Raymond Cattell
    • Crystallized: includes verbal and math capabilities and experiences that are learned
    • Fluid: includes nonverbal problem solving and pattern recognition
  26. Ego Development Theory of Jane Loevinger
    • Ego development stage theory that explained human personality developmental progression and fixation:
    • 1. Presocial stage
    • 2. Symbiotic Stage: diff self from others
    • 3. Impulsive stage
    • 4. Self-protective stage: self-control, rule governed behavior
    • 5. Conformist stage: obey group rules, strive for acceptance by family
    • 6. Self-awareness/self-conscious stage: strive for stability and maturity
    • 7. Conscientiousness: internalize rules, morality
    • 8. Individualistic
    • 9. Autonomous
    • 10. Integrated: consolidated identity
  27. Maslow's Humanistic Theory
    • Heirarchy of needs
    • Physiological
    • Safety
    • Belonging
    • Esteem
    • Self Actualization
  28. What are ethological theories?
    They emphasize the role of instinct in human development and use naturalistic observations
  29. Who is Konrad Lorenz?
    • Experiments on imprinting, process by which a duck attaches to the first moving object it encounters shortly after hatching.
    • Irreversible
    • Sensitive/Critical Period
  30. John Bowlby
    • decribes infants as being born with an innate potential for attachment
    • failure to attach to a caregiver early in life will affect trust and intimacy in later development
    • Three stages of infants exposed to prolonged separations:
    • Protest: refuses to accept separation and cries
    • Despair: seems to give up hope and withdraws
    • Detachment: accepts attention from others; disinterested when caregiver reemerges
  31. Mary Ainsworth
    • Four patterns of attachment
    • Securely attached
    • Avoidantly attached: withdrawn behaviors, detached from caregiver
    • Ambivalently attached: clinging behavior, protests separation
    • Disorganized attachment: little emotion at separation and mostly confusion at reunion
  32. Harry Harlow and his monkeys
    • Rhesus monkeys in cages with wire surrogate mothers
    • One with a bottle for food
    • One with a terrycloth covering for comfotr
    • Preferred to be around comfort monkey
  33. Marcia's 4 Types of Identity
    • Identity Achievement: commiting to goals and taking a course of action towards goals
    • Identity Moratorium: continuing to take in info without agreeing on goals or a course of action
    • Identity Foreclosure: others have determined the goals and teen follows, unquestioning
    • Identity Diffusion: teens procrastinate or become so confused that they don't even take info in.
  34. Gender Role Development
    • Social learning theory: children learn through observation and differential reinforcement from same-sex caregivers
    • Cognitive-development models: As children develop high levels of cognition, they become aware of their own gender identity
    • Biological theories: hormones
    • Psychoanalytic theory: children emulate parents, Oedipus and Electra complexes
  35. Social Play
    • Parten
    • Nonsocial activities: play by self, won't play with another child in same activity
    • Parallel Play: play near each other but not with each other
    • Associative Play: separate activities, but interact with one another
    • Cooperative Play: play with each other
  36. Theories of Aging
    • disengagement (detachment) theory: withdrawal from the social system is a natural process
    • activity theory: as people age they prefer to remain socially active in order to resist self pre-occupation and maintain social relationships
  37. Kubler-Ross Stages of Grief
    • Shock and denial
    • Anger
    • Bargaining and Guilt
    • Hopelessness/Depression
    • Acceptance
  38. Kohlberg and Moral Development
    • 3 levels, 2 stages each; sometimes called a 6 stage theory
    • Level 1: Preconventional Level: little awareness of socially acceptable moral behavior and follow rules to avoid punishment
    • Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment: Weak must please the strong.
    • Stage 2: Instrumental Hedonism: Pleasure is a motivator, self-serving
    • Level 2: Conventional Level: familial or societal authority is recognized; follow rules to avoid social disapproval
    • Stage 3: Good Boy, Good Girl: Try to please everyone, want to be seen as good, empathy starts to develop
    • Stage 4: Law and Order: Rules are the rules.
    • Level 3: Postconventional Level: Choose moral codes to live by. Behave in a way that respects the dignity of all people.
    • Stage 5: Social/Moral Contract and System of Laws: general individual rights and standards agreed upon by society
    • Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles: moral behavior determined by conscience.
  39. Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development
    • feminist; thought Kohlberg's theory was biased against females
    • Three stage theory:
    • Orientation to individual survival: focus on self
    • Goodness as Self-Sacrifice: good is doing for others
    • Morality of Nonviolence: equilibrium between individual needs and social caring ideal.
  40. Other approaches to moral development
    • Piaget: based on cognitive awareness: premoral stage, moral realism stage, moral relativism stage
    • Freud: morality results from unconscious, irrational motives perpetuated by the id, being reconciled by the superefo, to keep the ego from becoming conscious
    • Behavioral: environmental influence and focuses on the rewards or punishments associated with moral actions
    • Social learning: important of imitation and vicarious learning
  41. Life Span Theories: Gessell
    • Genetic unfolding of characteristics and milestones with only slight environmental influence
    • Developed the Gessell scales often used by doctors when considering development (stacking blocks, how many words, etc.)
  42. Robert Havighurst's Developmental Task Approach
    • Proposed a series of developmental tasks that humans achieve as they grow and develop from infancy to late adulthood
    • Sense of self and mastery improves as tasks achieved
    • e.g. learning to talk, starting a family, adjusting to death of spouse
  43. Roger Gould's Adult Developmental Theory
    Adults strove to eliminate false assumptions (protective devices) usually relating to parental dependency, that restricted young and middle adult development.
  44. Robret Peck's Phase Theory of Adult Development
    • Reworked Erikson's last 2 stages
    • Middle Adults:
    • Valuing Wisdom vs. Valuing Physical Prowess:
    • Socializing vs. Sexualizing: sex replaced by empathy, understanding and compassion
    • Cathetic Flexibility vs. Cathetic Impoverishment: must learn to shift emotional energies from one person to another to deal with loss.
    • Phases of Retirement Years
    • Differentiation vs. Role Preoccupation: redefining worth in something other than work roles.
    • Body Transcendence vs. Body Preoccupation: coping with declining physical well-being
    • Ego Transcendence vs. Ego Preoccupation: recognizing that death is inevitable but one has made contributions to the future
  45. Daniel Levinson's Adult Male Development Theory
    • Adult males create life structures (periods of stability and growth) alternating with transitional periods
    • Novice Phase:
    • Early adult transition (17-22)
    • Entering the adult world (22-28)
    • Age 30 transition
    • The Settling Down Phase
    • Early Settling Down
    • Becoming One's Own Man (BOOM)
    • Midlife Transition (40-45)
    • Entering Middle Adulthood (45-50)
    • Age 50 Transition
    • Building a Second Middle Adult Structure (55-60)
    • Late Adult Transition (60-65)
    • Late Adulthood (65+)
  46. Crisis
    • Eric Lindemann, Gerard Caplan, Hill
    • Types of crisis:
    • developmental: normal life experiences
    • environmental: natural or human caused events effecting multiple people
    • existential crisis: who am I?
    • situational crisis: caused by precipitating event that is shocking and traumatic, e.g. rape
    • psychiatric crisis: caused by mental health or substance abuse problems
  47. DSM-IV
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    • Axis I: Clinical disorders and other conditions (e.g. ADHD, Generalized Anxiety Disorder)
    • Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
    • Axis III: General Medical Conditions
    • Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems (e.g. unemployment, homelessness)
    • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)

    GAF: 0 or 1 to 100. 100 is best functioning. reported for current functioning and highest level within the last year.

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