Biology test 2

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Biology test 2
2011-03-13 18:08:27

study guide for chap 4
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  1. what are all cells surrounded by
    all cells are surrounded by cell membrane
  2. what is plasma membrane
    plasma membrane is phospholiped bilayer
  3. what seperates inside of cell from extrenal enviroment
    plasma membrane
  4. proteins embbeded in membrane are
    integral proteins
  5. Many other proteins attached either to outside of membrane or inside of membrane are ....
    Peripheral Proteins
  6. proteins from what in membrane
    mosaic pattern
  7. Model of cell membrane = “Fluid-Mosaic Model” is what?
    based on changing location and pattern of proteins in a fluid phospholipid bilayer
  8. what are Glycolipids
    are carbohydrates attached to phospholipids
  9. what are carbohydrates attached to proteins
  10. how many categories of proteins are there in membranes
    there are Five
  11. what are Carrier proteins?
    proteins combines with molecules or ions and transports them across membrane
  12. what are Cell recognition proteins
    glycoproteins that help body defend itself against disease
  13. what are Channel proteins
    form a channel through membrane to allow specific molecule or ion to cross membrane
  14. what are Enzymatic proteins
    proteins that catalyze specific reaction in membrane
  15. what are Receptor proteins
    proteins in membrane that bind to specific substance and alter cell metabolism
  16. Permeability of Cell Membranes
  17. what regulates passage of molecules into and out of cell
  18. what allows some molecules to pass but not others
    Membrane is differentially permeable
  19. Membrane is semi-permeable
    it allows some molecules to pass but not others Those substances that cannot pass through membrane may be transported by carrier proteins or may cross through channel proteins
  20. Molecules may cross membrane by Diffusion or Facilitated Transport
    Energy NOT required
  21. Macromolecules and other substances may cross membranes by
    Active Transport, Exocytosis, Endocytosis – Energy IS required
  22. Diffusion
    movement of molecules from place of higher concentration to place of lower concentration
  23. gas exchange of oxygen into lungs is example of
  24. what is solution?
    homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; often consists of liquid solvent in which solute is dissolved; solute will NOT settle out of solvent
  25. what is Osmosis
    it is the diffusion of water across semi-permeable membrane because of concentration differences (concentration of solute is higher on one side of membrane than on other side
  26. Isotonic solution
    solution concentration is the same on both sides of membrane; therefore, no net movement of water across membrane; cell volume remains the same
  27. what is Hypertonic solution
    solution concentration outside cell is higher than inside concentration; cell shrinks by losing water
  28. what is Hypotonic solution
    solution concentration outside cell is lower than inside cell; cell swells because of water uptake; cell may undergo cytolysis
  29. Cytolysis
    bursting of cell due to uptake of water
  30. Transport by Carrier Proteins
    Some proteins in membranes transport molecules across membranes
  31. Facilitated transport
    no energy required; moves molecules from higher to lower concentration
  32. Active transport
    energy is required; moves molecules from lower concentration to higher concentration; uses carrier molecules in membranes
  33. Vesicle Formation
  34. Exocytosis
    process by which intracellular vesicle fuses with membrane so that contents of vesicle released outside cell
  35. Endocytosis
    process by which substances moved into cells by phagocytosis or pinocytosis or receptor-mediated endocytosis