HUMAN REPRODUCTION

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Anonymous
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7265
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HUMAN REPRODUCTION
Updated:
2010-02-18 06:28:18
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Female reproductive System
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IB140
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  1. Functions of Ovary:
    • Development of female gametes
    • Synthesis and release of steroid hormones
  2. Ovarian Stroma Components: (Stroma has outer ovarian cortex and inner ovarian medulla:
    • Intersitial cells that produce steroid hormones
    • Outer Ovarian Cortex contains OOCYTES that are each enclosed in a OVARIAN FOLLICLE or tissue sac
  3. Ovarian Cortex:
    • -Each follicle contains an OOCYTE surrounded by a follicular wall consisting of a thin MEMBRANE GRANULOSA made up of follicular cells and surrounded by THECA (connective tissue)
    • -ZONA PELLUCIDA is a transparent membrane between oocyte and follicular wall
  4. FSH and FOLLICULAR GROWTH:
    • -FSH receptors found on granulosa cells of follicle early in follicular development
    • -Most follicular growth is FSH dependent
  5. Follicular growth and hormone secretion:
    • -Steroid hormone secretions in ovary are under direct influence of two pituitary gonadotropins:
    • 1.FSH
    • 2.LH
  6. LH EFFECTS ON FOLLICULAR AND CORPUS LUTEUM GROWTH:
    • -LH receptors found on early thecal cells of follicles and facilitate thecal cell development
    • -Shortly before ovulation, LH receptors also appear on granulosa cells, which causes them to convert to luteal cells, which leads to:
    • progesterone release, follicle and oocyte maturation, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation and maintenance
  7. Mitosis of granulosa cells is controlled by?
    FSH
  8. Formation of theca controlled by:
    LH
  9. Formation of follicular fluid controlled by:
    FSH and LH
  10. Which Hormone Controls OOCYTE MATURATION, OVULATION, and CORPUS LUTEUM?
    • -LH
    • FULL OF LH RECEPTORS
  11. OOGONIA and OOOCYTES:
    • -in mitotic division in fetus
    • -In meiotic division and are enclosed within follicles
    • -Primary OOCYTES are arrested in prophase of first meiotic division for as long as 50 yrs
  12. Ovarian oogonia, Oocytes and Follicle Numbers through life:
    • 8 weeks gestation: 600,000 Oogonia
    • 5 months gestation: million Oogonia
    • Birth: 1-2 million (primordial follicles with Oocytes)
    • 1 yr: Ovaries contain some tertiary follicles
    • Puberty: 200,000 follicles with oocytes
    • 35 yrs: 100,000 follicles with Oocytes
    • Menopause:0-few follicles
  13. Tertiary Follicle growth stimulated by:
    • -FSH
    • Stimulates estrogen production in granulosa cells of tertiary follicles via the delta 5 pathway
    • Tertiary follicles produce most of the circulating estrogen in the body
  14. Ovarian Tertiary Follicle Steroid Hormone Synthesis:
    -Delta 5 pathway in tertiary follicles (rockn during estrogen peak)
  15. Graafian follicle growth and hormone secretion:
    -The granulosa cells in the graafian follicles develop LH receptors and transform into luteal cells which produce progesterone through the delta 4 pathway to prepare the uterus to be ready for implantation (LUTEINIZATION)
  16. Delta 5 Pathway?
    Delta 4 Pathway?
    • in Tertiary Follicles
    • In pre ovulatory follicles and the corpus luteum
  17. Follicle maturation and ovulation:
    • -20 large tertiary follicles form in each of the 2 ovaries
    • -Only 1 matures to the GRAAFIAN stage to ovulate each month and the rest go through Atresia
    • -Ovulation alternates between the right and left ovary each month
  18. the nucleus of most human cells are:
    • -Diploid(2N)
    • -46 Chromosomes in 23 pairs
  19. OOGENESIS results in the production of?
    -Mature haploid (1N) female gametes
  20. OOCYTE MATURATION AND OVULATION:
    • 1.Birth:female ovaries contain primary oocytes in primary follicles
    • Arrested in first meiotic division and this condition persists in 2nd and tertiary follicles until Graafian follicle stage
    • 2. Surge of LH in the middle of menstrual cycle causes completion of the 1st meiotic division (Producing a secondary haploid oocyte & 1st polar
    • body).
    • 3. At Graafian stage, LH secretion by pituitary occurs,LH acts on the follicle cells and triggers the resumption of meiosis in the oocyte
    • When the membrane of the Oocyte disintegrates then the 1st meiotic division is completed
    • 4.SECOND MEIOTIC division begins while still in graafian follicle, but completes it after ovulation when the ovum is penetrated by sperm
  21. 2nd Meiotic Arrest:
    • -Haploid secondary oocyte begins second meiotic divison and arrested while the oocyte is still in the Graafian follicle
    • -The female germ cell is ovulated through the stigma of Graafian follicle as 2ndary oocyte in 2nd meiotic arrest
    • -the stigma ruptures open to allow the ovum to move outside of ovary into oviduct
  22. Ovulation caused by:
    • -LH
    • involves a local degradation of the follicle wall
    • -tear in follicular wall develops at the stigma and the Ovum oozes out with follicular fluid
    • -After Ovulation the ovum moves to oviduct into a 2nd meiotic arrest
    • -SPERM PENETRATES THE OVUM and completes the 2nd meiotic division to form a mature haploid oocyte
    • -Fertilization occurs and a diploid (2N) zygote forms
  23. Corpus Luteum:
    • -Formed from ovullated follicle
    • -Luteinizing granulosa cells form corpus luteum
    • -Secretes high levels of PROGESTERONE and moderate levels of ESTROGEN under LH INFLUENCE through the DELTA 4 PATHWAY
    • -Present for last 2 weeks of menstrual cycle and degenerates before menstruation
  24. Oviducts=Fallopian tubes:
    • -Paired tubes extending from near the ovaries to the uterus
    • -Internal lining of the oviducts has mucuous glands and ciliated cells that beat in the direction of the uterus
    • -Smooth muscle in the middle layer of the oviduct contract to help transport the ovum toward the uterus
    • -ESTROGEN: increases mucuous secretion,cilia beat faster,smooth muscle contracts frequently,transport ovum
    • -PROGESTERONE: decreases mucuous secretion, decreases smooth muscle contraction
  25. UTERUS:
    1..FUNDUS-above entrance of oviducts
    2..CORPUS-body of uterus tapers down to cervix
    3..CERVIX-narrow region near vagina
  26. UTERINE WALLS:
    1.Perimetrium-external surface
    2.Myometrium-middle layer with a thick layer of smooth muscle
    3.Endometrium-inner layer which shows structural channges during menstrual cycle and hormonal control
  27. Uterine ENDOMITRIUM: (inner layer of uterine cavity)
    • -Stratum functionalis: Shed during menstruation
    • -Stratum basalis: not shed, contains blood vessels that contribute to menstrual flow
  28. VAGINAL LAYERS:
    • 1.TUNICA MUCOSA: inner layer (elastic fibers allow it to stretch)
    • 2.TUNICA MUSCULARIS: middle layer (rich in smooth muscle)
    • 3.TUNICA ADVENTITIA: thin outer layer of elastic tissue
  29. VAGINA:
    • -home to bacteria, fungi, and protozoa
    • -acidic env. maintained by bacteria
    • -inhibits yeast (fungal) growth
  30. VULVA (external female genitalia):
    Mons Pubis,Labia majora,Labia Minora,Vaginal Introitus,Hymen,Clitoris
  31. Labia Majora homologous to:
    Male scrotum
  32. LESSER VESTIBULAR GLANDS homologous to:
    GREATER VESTIBULAR GLANDS homologous to:
    • -Male prostate gland in males
    • -they are fluid secreting glands
    • -secrete mucous
    • -Bulbourethral glands in males
  33. BREASTS:
    • -glandular tissue and associated ducts embedded in fatty tissue
    • -ALVEOLUS: milk is synthesized and secreted (secreted from alveoli into 2ndary mammary tubules)
    • -SECONDARY TUBULES from each lobe form a mammary duct that empties into a MAMMARY AMPULLA where milk is stored.
    • -AMPULLA empties into LACIFEROUS DUCT which empties into NIPPLE
    • -Variation in sizr due to fat distribution
    • -EACH BREAST HAS 15-20 Lobes of Glandular Tissue

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