Music Midterm.txt

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72654
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Music Midterm.txt
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2011-03-13 18:37:14
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Music Midterm
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  1. Gregorian chant
    • Unaccompanied monophonic singing without meter
    • set sacred Latin texts in Catholic churches during Middle ages
    • Named after Pope Gregory
  2. Melismatic
    Syllabic
    • Many notes sung to only one syllable
    • Opposed to syllabic (one or two notes per syllable)
  3. Mass
    Mass proper
    Mass Ordinary
    • Central, most important service of Catholic Church
    • Chants whose text changed to suit the feast day
    • Chants with unvarying texts sung every day
  4. What did Machaut do with the Mass?
    What was the advantage?
    • Before Machaut, composers writing polyphony had set only one or two sections of Proper of the Mass
    • Machaut set all the chants of the Ordinary
    • Could be heard on more than one feast day
  5. Organum
    • Early polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Mass
    • Composed for Notre Dame Cathedral by Perotinus & Leoninus
  6. Hildegaard
    • Gregorian chant composer, one of the first named composers
    • Music appeals to sensual experience (blood, breath)
    • Range huge by chant standards, big leaps of fourths & fifths
  7. Perotinus (1198-1238)
    • Choirmaster at Notre Dame of Paris
    • Created w/ Leoninus new style of chant: polyphony
    • Added wholly independent voice(s) above existing chant
    • Took centuries-old chant for mass (Viderunt Omnes), added 3 new voices above it
    • Jaunty triple-meter rhythm
  8. Tenor
    • The structurally fundamental line in medieval polyphony, moving very slowly, sustaining (holding) one note.
    • Provided harmonic foundation
  9. Guillame de Machaut (1300-1377)
    • Genius of Medieval music. Pre-eminent poet-compser of 14th-century.
    • Associated with Ars Nova- Middle Ages obsessed w/ rhythm, experimented w/ radical rhythmic composition
    • Developed motet and was the first to set the Ordinary of the Mass in triple meter (first to use triple meter)
    • Eliminated drone, put tenor in the middle, two on top, creating soprano/alto/tenor/bass (Perotinus had put all three above tenor)
    • Unlike P., spread out voices over 2.5 octaves, becoming first to use almost full range of chorus
  10. motet
    sacred Latin music for multiple voice parts
  11. Humanism
    • Renaissance ideal emphasizing human potential and belief that people could be morally educated
    • Belief that people are more than mere conduit for heaven, but have capacity to create & shape world.
  12. Josquin Desprez (1455-1521)
    Imitation
    • Franco-Flemish Renaissance composer
    • Excelled in motets
    • His Ave Maria (Hail Mary) uses standard four voice parts (S/A/T/B). As motet unfolds, voices enter in succession with same music motive (=imitation). Each voice equally important, yielding symmetry/balance.
    • Imitation: procedure whereby one more voices duplicate in turn the notes of a melody

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