Bio-19 Vocab

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Bio-19 Vocab
2011-03-22 22:42:11
Microorganisms Fungi Vocab

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  1. prokaryotes
    unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus
  2. *How do the two groups of prokaryotes differ?
    *Archaebacteria lack the peptidoglycan of eubacteria and also have different membrane lipids. Also, the DNA sequences of key archaebacterial genes are more like those of eukaryotes than those of eubacteria.
  3. *What factors can be used to identify prokaryotes?
    *Prokaryotes are identified by characteristics such as shape, the chemical nature of their cell walls, the way they move, and the way they obtain energy.
  4. bacilli
    • rock-shaped prokaryotes
    • (singular: bacillus)
  5. cocci
    • spherical prokaryotes
    • (singular: coccus)
  6. spirilla
    • spiral and corkscrew-shaped prokaryotes
    • (singular: spirillum)
  7. chemoheterotrophs
    organism that must take in organic molecules for both energy and carbon
  8. photoheterotrophs
    organism that is photsynthetic but needs organic compounds as a carbon source
  9. photoautotrophs
    organisms that use energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds
  10. chemoautotrophs
    organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions
  11. obligate aerobes
    organisms that require a constant supply of oxygen in order to live
  12. obligate anaerobes
    they must live in the absence of oxygen
  13. facultative anaerobes
    third group of bacteria that can survive with or without oxygen
  14. binary fission
    type of asexual reproduction in which an organsims replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
  15. conjugation
    form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information through a connecting hollow bridge
  16. endospore
    type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm
  17. *What is the importance of bacteria?
    *Bacteria are vital to maintaining the living world. Some are producers that capture energy by photosynthesis. Others are decomposers that break down the nutrients in dead matterand the atmosphere. Still other bacteria have human uses.
  18. nitrogen fixation
    process of converting nitrogen gas into a form plants can use
  19. viruses
    particles of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases, lipids
  20. *What are the parts of a virus?
    *A typical virus is composed of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat.
  21. capsid
    the virus's protein coat that includes proteins that allow a virus to enter a host cell
  22. bacteriophages
    viruses that infect bacteria
  23. *How do viruses cause infection?
    *In a lyctic infection, a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burts.
  24. lyctic infection
    process in which a virus enters a cell, makes a copy of itself, and causes the cell to burts
  25. lysogenic infections
    host cell makes copies of the virus indefinitely
  26. *How do viruses cause infection?
    *In a lysogenic infection, a virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell and the viral genetic information replicates along with the host cell's DNA.
  27. prophage
    the viral DNA that is embedded in the host's DNA
  28. retroviruses
    viruses that contain RNA as their genetic information
  29. pathogens
    disease-causing agents
  30. *How do bacteria cause disease?
    *Bacteria produce desease in one of two ways. Some bacteria damage the cells and tissues of the infected organism directly by breaking down the cells for food. Other bacteria release toxins (poisons) that travel throughout the body, interferring with the normal activity of the host.
  31. vaccine
    preparation of weakened or killed pathogens that prompts te body to produce immunity to the disease
  32. antibiotics
    compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
  33. *How can bacterial growth be controlled?
    *There are various methods used to control bacterial growth, including sterilization, disinfectants, and food processing.