Sulfonamides and Penicillins

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Samilou
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72659
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Sulfonamides and Penicillins
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2011-03-15 15:54:31
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Antibiotics
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Sulfonamides and Penicillins
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  1. Medications used to treat bacterial infections.
    Antibiotics
  2. 7 Classes of Antibiotics
    • Sulfonamides
    • Penicillins
    • Cephalosporins
    • Tetracylcines
    • Macrolides
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Quinolones
  3. Signs and Symptoms of Systemic Infections
    Fever, Chills, Fatigue, Weight loss, Increased WBC count
  4. S/S of Non-systemic Infections
    Swelling, Warmth, Redness
  5. Therapy used in an emergency situation where causative organism is not known. Uses broad spectrum antibiotic.
    Empiric Therapy
  6. Therapy used to prevent an infection
    Prophylactic Therapy
  7. Decrease is specific s/s of infection are noted
    Therapeutic response
  8. S/S of infection do not improve
    Subtherapeutic response
  9. Reasons drug therapy may not work.
    Wrong route, drainage from an abscess, not enough or not administered long enough
  10. When antibiotics reduce or eliminate the body's normal flora and allows other bacteria or fungi to take over.
    Superinfection
  11. Four Mechanisms of Action (MOA)
    • 1-Interference of cell wall synthesis
    • 2-Protein synthesis
    • 3-DNA replication
    • 4-Antimetabolite actions
  12. What does a bactericidal do?
    Kills bacteria
  13. Inhibits growth of susceptible bacteria, rather than killing them immediately.
    Bacteriostatic
  14. Action of Sulfonamides
    Bacteriostatic
  15. Prevents synthesis of folic acid required for synthesis of purines and nucleic acid
    Sulfonamides
  16. Used to treat UTIs, nocardiosis, PCP (commonly found in HIV patients), Upper respiratory infections
    Sulfonamides
  17. Sulfonamide comination drugs..
    Bactrim and Septra
    trimethoprim/sulfomethoxazole
  18. Sulfonamide combination drugs..
    Pediazole
    erythromysin/sulfisoxazole
  19. Sulfonamide.. Gantrisin
    sulfisoxazole
  20. Side effects to Sulfonamides
    Aplastic anemia, photosensitivity, exfoliative dermatitis, nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis, SJ syndrome, Epidermal necrolysis
  21. This antibiotic can cause convulsions in infants because of displacement of billirubin from albumin.
    Sulfonamides
  22. Things to watch for when administering Sulfonamides to patients
    RBC count, renal function, take WITH food, fluid intake of 2000-3000mL/day
  23. Two antibiotics derived from mold fungus
    Penicillin and Cephalosporins
  24. Action of Penicillin
    Bertericidal
  25. Four subgroups of penicillin
    • Natural
    • Penicillinase-resistant
    • Aminopenicillins
    • Extended-spectrum
  26. 2 Types of Natural Penicillins
    penicillin G, penicillin V potassium
  27. 4 Types of Penicillinase-resistant penicillins
    • cloxacillin
    • dicloxacillin
    • nafcillin
    • oxacillin
  28. 3 Types of Aminopenicillins
    • amoxicillin
    • ampicillin
    • bacampicillin
  29. 3 Types of Extended-spectrum penicillins
    • piperacillim
    • ticarcillin
    • carbenicillin
  30. This antibiotic is used to kill gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus)
    penicillin
  31. Patients taking penicillin should be monitored for at least _______ after administration
    30 minutes
  32. Things to avoid when taking penicillin
    Caffeine, citrus, soda, fruit and tomato juice
  33. T or F
    It is always best to take Penicillin on an empty stomach
    True
  34. When taking penicillin what should you teach patients to take with it to prevent superinfection?
    Buttermilk, yogurt, cultured dairy products
  35. Combination of beta-lactamase inhibitors and penicillin..
    Unasyn
    sulbactam/ampicillin
  36. Combination of beta-lactamase inhibitors and penicillin..
    Augmentin
    clavulanic/amoxicillin
  37. Combination of beta-lactamase inhibitors and penicillin..
    Timentin
    clavulanic/ticarcillin
  38. Combination of beta-lactamase inhibitors and penicillin..
    Zosyn
    tazobactam/pipercillin

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