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Cardiovascular system has two major divisions. What are they?
What Small but Significant Changes gnerate a small elecrical pulse in the SA node?
Concentration changes in
The SA node impulse reaches the AV junction in the atria and is briefly delayed. Why?
To allow time for the atria to contract fully.
Adds 30% more blood volume to the ventricles before the ventricles contract.
How do the Atria Fill?
When the heart is at rest the atria fill passively.
The right atria fills from the venae cavae.
The left atria fills from the pulmonary veins.
Stroke volume depends on what 3 factors?
Amount of blood filling the heart.
Natural strenght of the heart muscle (contractility).
Resistance to blood flow in the circulatory system.
Arterioles contain what type of muscle?
Smooth muscle cells.
Allows for vasodilation and vaso constriction.
Major role play in BP
When are coronary arteries nourished?
Heart tissue is perfused primarly during the resting portion of the cardiac cycle (diastole).
Non-Modifiable traditional risk factors include:
Family Hx of heart disease.
Man or woman after menopause.
Increase age (risk increases with age).
African American Ethnicity.
Modifiable traditional risk factors include:
High blood cholesterol
Stress in daily living.
The 3 stages of high BP are:
Prehypertension-systolic pressure of 120-139, diastolic of 80-89.
Stage 1-systolic pressure of 140-159, diastolic of 90-99.
Stage 2- greater than 160 or diastolic greater than 100
Two body functions that can cause high BP include
Changes in sodium excretion in kidneys.
Arterial smooth muscle contractility caused by changes in calcium absorption.
What is Syndrome X (metabolic syndrome)?
A genetc metabolic disorder involving diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cnetral distributedobesity and elevated blood lipids.
Stress can manifest into:
Common factors of inadequate tissue perfusion include:
Changes in skin
Changes in cognition
What is Ruber?
Bluish-red skin coloration caused by hyperemia or increased blood flow.
What skin changes occure with alteration in perfusion?
shiny dry skin
clubbed fingers or toes
What 3 things can decrease the heart's ablility to pump effectivley?
Two factors of Valve Dysfunction are:
What changes in blood cause serious alteration in cardiovascular function ?
changes in serum potassium levels cause dysrhymias.
Increase sodium intake cause increase blood volume-overworks heart.
Acidotic pH decreases ablilty of hemoglobin to carry oxygen.
What is polycythemia?
Decrease in heart pumping results in thickier more viscous blood.
Blood flow that is moved slowly through vessels making the heart work harder.
Causes of venous pooling include:
right-sided heart failure.
ineffective venous valves.
NIH Stroke Scale consists of what 5 areas:
Assessing Peripheraal circulationi by checking:
Popliteal (behind knee)
Posterior tibial (ankle)
Dorsalis pedis (foot)
What information does a CBC provide?
White blood cells.
Number of red blood cells.
What are the cardiac enzymes that indicate tissue damage?
Serum levels of myoglobin
What test are used to study kidney function studies?
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
What are the Diagnostic Test that yield information on cardiac function and blood flow.
Radiography-establish size and shape of heart.
Electrocardiography-records hearts electrical impulses.
Exercise Testing-response to cardiovascular stress.
Echocardiography-Ultrasonic waves to diagnose structural heart defects.
Cardiac Catheterization-Catheters inserted into the vein or artery directly into the heart.
Angiography-radiopaque dy to outline blood vessels.
Electrophysiology-assesses electrical conduction or automaticity in the heart.