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Cardiovascular system has two major divisions. What are they?
- Pulmonary Circulation
- Systemic Circulation
What Small but Significant Changes gnerate a small elecrical pulse in the SA node?
- Concentration changes in
The SA node impulse reaches the AV junction in the atria and is briefly delayed. Why?
- To allow time for the atria to contract fully.
- Adds 30% more blood volume to the ventricles before the ventricles contract.
How do the Atria Fill?
- When the heart is at rest the atria fill passively.
- The right atria fills from the venae cavae.
- The left atria fills from the pulmonary veins.
Stroke volume depends on what 3 factors?
- Amount of blood filling the heart.
- Natural strenght of the heart muscle (contractility).
- Resistance to blood flow in the circulatory system.
Arterioles contain what type of muscle?
- Smooth muscle cells.
- Allows for vasodilation and vaso constriction.
- Major role play in BP
When are coronary arteries nourished?
Heart tissue is perfused primarly during the resting portion of the cardiac cycle (diastole).
Non-Modifiable traditional risk factors include:
- Family Hx of heart disease.
- Man or woman after menopause.
- Increase age (risk increases with age).
- African American Ethnicity.
Modifiable traditional risk factors include:
- High BP
- Cigarette/tobacco use
- High blood cholesterol
- Physical inactivity
- Stress in daily living.
- Hormone replacement.
The 3 stages of high BP are:
- Prehypertension-systolic pressure of 120-139, diastolic of 80-89.
- Stage 1-systolic pressure of 140-159, diastolic of 90-99.
- Stage 2- greater than 160 or diastolic greater than 100
Two body functions that can cause high BP include
- Changes in sodium excretion in kidneys.
- Arterial smooth muscle contractility caused by changes in calcium absorption.
What is Syndrome X (metabolic syndrome)?
A genetc metabolic disorder involving diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cnetral distributedobesity and elevated blood lipids.
Stress can manifest into:
Common factors of inadequate tissue perfusion include:
- Changes in skin
- Changes in cognition
- Thrombus formation
What is Ruber?
Bluish-red skin coloration caused by hyperemia or increased blood flow.
What skin changes occure with alteration in perfusion?
- hair loss
- discolored skin
- thickened nails
- shiny dry skin
- clubbed fingers or toes
- skin lesions
What 3 things can decrease the heart's ablility to pump effectivley?
- Muscle damage
- vavle dysfunction
- conduction problems
Two factors of Valve Dysfunction are:
- regurgitation-incomplete closing
What changes in blood cause serious alteration in cardiovascular function ?
- changes in serum potassium levels cause dysrhymias.
- Increase sodium intake cause increase blood volume-overworks heart.
- Acidotic pH decreases ablilty of hemoglobin to carry oxygen.
What is polycythemia?
- Decrease in heart pumping results in thickier more viscous blood.
- Blood flow that is moved slowly through vessels making the heart work harder.
Causes of venous pooling include:
- right-sided heart failure.
- ineffective venous valves.
NIH Stroke Scale consists of what 5 areas:
Assessing Peripheraal circulationi by checking:
- Femoral (groin)
- Popliteal (behind knee)
- Posterior tibial (ankle)
- Dorsalis pedis (foot)
- Capillary refill
What information does a CBC provide?
- White blood cells.
- Sedimentation rate.
- Number of red blood cells.
What are the cardiac enzymes that indicate tissue damage?
- Serum levels of myoglobin
What test are used to study kidney function studies?
- Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
What are the Diagnostic Test that yield information on cardiac function and blood flow.
- Radiography-establish size and shape of heart.
- Electrocardiography-records hearts electrical impulses.
- Exercise Testing-response to cardiovascular stress.
- Echocardiography-Ultrasonic waves to diagnose structural heart defects.
- Cardiac Catheterization-Catheters inserted into the vein or artery directly into the heart.
- Angiography-radiopaque dy to outline blood vessels.
- Electrophysiology-assesses electrical conduction or automaticity in the heart.
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