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2011-03-13 20:24:48
Biology exam

chap 7
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  1. Metabolism is All Chemical Changes in Cell
    Metabolism consists of anabolism + catabolism
  2. Catabolism involves breakdown of nutrients
    nutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, fats; proteins break down into amino acids; carbohydrates break down into glucose; fats break down into glycerol + fatty acids;
  3. Deamination
    is removal of amino groups from amino acids to produce urea, primary excretory product of humans
  4. Anabolism
    is build-up of larger molecules from small ones; anabolism requires energy; energy supplied by ATP
  5. Cellular Respiration
  6. Respiration
    is step-wise release of energy from molecules; aerobic respiration requires O2 and gives off CO2
  7. Relationship between Breathing + Eating + Cellular Respiration
    Oxygen is inhaled and Glucose ingested as food carried through blood into cells of digestive tract, then into mitochondria; ATP produced + CO2, which is exhaled from lungs
  8. Overview of Cellular Respiration
  9. Equation:
    Glucose + 6 O2 in presence of ADP + P → 6 CO2 + 6 H20 + ATP (HIGH ENERGY)Almost all organisms on land or in water carry on cellular respiration
  10. NAD+ and FAD are coenzymes involved in cellular respiration
    coenzymes are organic non-protein molecules and help enzymes function properly
  11. Phases of Cellular Respiration
    Glycolysis + Preparatory Reaction + Citric Acid Cycle + Electron Transport Chain
  12. Glycolysis
    takes place within cytoplasm but outside of mitochondria; produces pyruvate and net gain of 2 ATPs
  13. Preparatory Reaction occurs inside mitochondria
    pyruvate transported into mitochondria and is oxidized into C2 acetyl group;
  14. Citric Acid Cycle occurs in matrix of mitochondria;
    cyclical series of reactions that give off CO2 and produce 1 ATP per cycle; cycle runs twice for each glucose metabolized; therefore, 2 ATPs produced
  15. Electron Transport Chain
    is series of carriers that accept electrons (but not H+) removed from glucose; occurs across membrane of cristae; results in 32 or 34 ATPs
  16. Cellular Respiration
    involves breakdown of Glucose into CO2 + Water + Energy in form of ATP
  17. Each Glucose metabolized yields 36 or 38 ATPs [2 ATPs from Glycolysis + 2 ATPs from Citric Acid Cycle + 32 or 34 ATPs from Electron Transport Chain]
  18. Glycolysis Outside of Mitochondria
  19. Glycolysis
    is breakdown of Glucose (6 carbons) into two Pyruvates (each is 3 carbons)
  20. Energy-investment steps:
    two ATPs used to activate Glucose into two C3 molecules
  21. Energy- harvesting steps
    four ATPs synthesized; four ATPs minus two ATPS = NET GAIN of two ATPs
  22. Preparatory Reaction Inside Mitochondria
    Occurs in matrix of mitochondria
  23. Preparatory reaction
    produces a molecules that can enter Citric Acid Cycle
  24. Preparatory reaction is oxidation reaction
    hydrogen atoms removed from Pyruvate
  25. Reactions occurs twice per glucose molecule metabolized
  26. Citric Acid Cycle
    Occurs within matrix of mitochondria
  27. Starts with C2 acetyl group carried by Coenzyme A; cycle ends with production of Citrate
  28. Citrate is same as Citric Acid
    two citrates produced from each Glucose metabolizedOutput of Citric Acid Cycle: 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + H+ 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP
  29. Electron Transport Chain
    Located in cristae of mitochondria
  30. Electrons passed from one carrier to another
    energy is used to produce ATP
  31. Cytochromes
    are electron carriers in Electron Transport Chain
  32. Chemiosmosis
    occurs within Inter-membrane Space of cristae; synthesis of ATPs
  33. Electron Transport Chain
    produces net gain of 32 or 34 ATP molecules
  34. Energy Yield and Efficiency of Cellular Respiration
  35. Glycolysis yields
    2 ATPs
  36. Citric Acid Cycle yields
    2 ATPs
  37. Electron Transport Chain
    yields 32 or 34 ATPs
  38. Total energy yield from metabolism of one glucose
    is 36 or 38 ATPs
  39. Efficiency of cellular respiration
    is 39% of available energy from one glucose
  40. Fermentation
  41. Fermentation
    occurs when no Oxygen available
  42. Anaerobic
    refers to lack of oxygen
  43. Animals:
    When oxygen is not available, two Pyruvates formed from one Glucose is converted into two Lactates + net gain of two ATPs
  44. Yeast or bacteria
    pyruvates converted into two alcohols + two CO2 + net gain of two ATPs
  45. Lactate is toxic to cells
    Lactate is Lactic Acid; lactic acid in blood lowers pH; makes muscles “burn”
  46. Oxygen debt”
    is amount of oxygen needed to convert lactate back into pyruvate

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