Chapter 24 Review

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Chapter 24 Review
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2011-03-13 20:31:54
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AP Bio
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  1. process by whihc one species splits into two or more species
    specieation
  2. changes over time in allele frequencies in a poupluation
    microevolution
  3. broad pattern of evolution over long time spans
    macroevolution
  4. Speciation forms a bridge ebtween what?
    micro and macroevoutio
  5. Latin for kind or appearance
    species
  6. definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and prodcuce viable fertile offspring, but do not produce viable fertile offspring with members of such groups
    biological species concept
  7. transfer of alleles between populaations
    gene flow
  8. existence of nbiological factors (barriers) that impede members of two species from producing viable, fertile offspring
    reproductive isolation
  9. pffs[romg tjat resi;t frp, am omters[ecofoc ,atomg
    jynrods
  10. a reprductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization if interspecific mating is attempted
    prezygotic barrier
  11. a reproductive barrier that prent hybrid zygotes produced by two different species from developing into viable, fertile adults
    postzygotic barrier
  12. two species that occupy different habitats within the same area may encounter each other rarely, if at all, even though they are not isolated by obvious physical barriers, like mt. ranges
    habitat isolation (pre)
  13. species that breed during different times of the day, different seasons, or different years cannot mix their gametes
    temporal isolation (pre)
  14. courtship rituals that attract mates and other behaviour unique to a species are effective reproductive barriers, even between closely related species. Such behavioral rituals enable mate recognition- a way to identify potential mates of the same species.
    behavioral isolation (pre)
  15. a way to identify potential mates of the same species
    mate recognition
  16. mating is attempted, but morphological differences prevent its successful completion
    mechanical isolation (pre)
  17. sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize the eggs of another species. For instance, sperm may ot be able to survive in the reproductive tract of females of the other species, or biochemical mechanisms may prevent the sperm from penetrating the membrane surrounding the other species' eggs
    gametic isolation (pre)
  18. The genes of different parent species may interact in ways that impair the hybrid's development or survival in its environment
    reduced hybrid viability (post)
  19. even if hybrids are vigorous, they may be sterile. If the chromosomes of the two parent species differ in number or structure, meiosis in the hybrids may fail to produce normal gametes. Sunce the infertile hybrids cannot produce offspring when they mate with either parent species, gnes cannot flow freely between the species.
    reduced hybrid fertility (post)
  20. some first-generation hybrids are viable and fertile, but when they mate with one another or with either parent species, offspring of the next generation are febele and sterile.
    hybrid breakdown (post)
  21. a definitioin of species as the smallest groups of individuals that share a common ancestor, forming one branch on the tree of life
    phylogenetic species concept
  22. a definition of species in terms of measurable anatomical criteria
    morphological species concept
  23. a definition of species in terms of ecological niche, the sum of how members of the species interact with the nonliving and living parts of their environment
    ecological species concept
  24. the formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another
    allopatric speciation
  25. the formation of new spewcies in populations that live in the same geographic area
    sympatric speciation
  26. a chromosomal aberration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets; is the result of an accident on cell division
    polyploidy
  27. a fertile individual that has more than two chromosome sets as a result of two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes
    allopolyploid
  28. an individual that has more than two chromosome sets that are all derived from a single species
    autopolyploid

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