Human Reproduction 140

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
7271
Filename:
Human Reproduction 140
Updated:
2010-02-18 08:28:23
Tags:
Male Reproductive System
Folders:

Description:
IB 140
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Testes:
    • -Produce male sex cells (gametes) called SPERMATOZOA or SPERM
    • -TUNICA VAGINALIS: shiny covering on outisde of each testes
    • -TUNICA ALBUGINEA: dense covering of the testes.
    • -TESTICULAR LOBULES: inside each testes there is 250 (compartments seperated from eachother by septa)
    • -SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES: contained inside each lobule.
  2. Inguinal Canal:
    -The route through which the tested originally descended into the scrotum from the pelvic cavity before birth
  3. Spermatic Cord:
    (has 3 parts)
    • -Vas Deferens: 1 of the accesory ducts
    • -testicular nerve
    • -3 coiled blood vessels (1 artery 2 veins)
  4. SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES:
    • -1-3 highly coiled are contained in each testicular lobule
    • -single tubule can be stretched 30-90cm
    • -Seminiferous epithelium lines the inside of each seminiferous tubule and contains 2 types of cells(male and sertolli)
    • -Male Germ Cells: produce SPERM.
    • -Sertolli Cells: Nurse cells nurture and provide structural support for sperm cells during development
  5. Spermatogenesis VS Spermiogenesis
    -Process by which IMMATURE GERM CELLS PRODUCE SPERM

    -Process by which HAPLOID SPERMATIDS ARE TRANSFORMED INTO HAPLOID SPERMATOZOA (sperm cells)
  6. SPERMATOGENESIS:
    • -Process by which a DIPLOID SPERMATOGONIUM transforms to FOUR HAPLOID SPERMATIDS
    • -SPERMATOGONIA: immature germ cells that are diploid (46 chrom)
  7. SPERMATOGONIA MEIOTIC DIVISION:
    -primary spermatogonium undergoes meiosis and becomes a PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE

    23 chromosomes (haploid N) and are now SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES

    undergo second meiotic division and produce 4 Haploid cells called SPERMATIDS

    undergo SPERMIOGENESIS which turns Spermatids to SPERMATOZOA (sperm)
  8. SPERMIATION:
    When mature sperm heads are released from sertolli cells
  9. Entire Process:
    Spermatogenesis, Spermiogenesis, Spermiation
    • Takes 65-75 days
    • Seminiferous tubule is production line of sperm
    • Human males produce sperm at a rate of 100/sec
    • MYOID CELLS: muscle-like cells in basement of membrane of seminiferous tubules that contract to help moce sperm and fluid through tubules
  10. Sperm:
    • -one x and one y chromosome
    • -3 alleles: 1 produces mainly x, 1 mainly y, 1 produces equal numbers
  11. Sertolli Cells:
    • -Pyramid like lying within the seminiferous epithelium
    • -NURSE CELLS that provide structural support
    • -Secrete testicular fluid into cavity of seminiferous tubules
    • -PHAGOCYTIC: and engulf the remains of degenerated germ cells.
    • -Blood Testis Border: Protects spermatocytes and spermatids from autoimmune attack
    • -# of sertolli cells determined at puberty
    • -Rate of sperm production is related to a mans sertolli cells in his testes
    • -Secrete Androgen binding protein
    • -Secrete INHIBIN and MULLERIAN-INHIBITING substance
    • -Produce enzymes that convert testostorone to estrogen and dihydrozytestostorone
  12. LEYDIG CELLS:
    -Synthesize and secrete androgenic steroid hormones
  13. TESTOSTORONE ANDROGEN:
    • -MOST IMPORTANT ANDROGEN IN HUMAN MALES!!!!
    • -95%comes from leydig cells in testes
    • -5% from adrenal gland
    • -98% of plasma testostorone is bound to plasma proteins
    • -2% of plasma testostorone is free
  14. ANDROGENS:
    stimulate growth and maintenance of male reproductive tissues
    stimulate muscle growth
    enhance libido in men and women
    TESTOSTORONE AND LH levels are higher in a.m. than p.m. for males
    TESTOSTORONE levels have seasonal cycles and highest in autumn
    DHT causes growth of facial hair prostate penis and scrotum
    • Strong:
    • -TESTOSTORONE
    • -DHT
    • weak:
    • -ANDROSTENEDIONE
    • -DHEA
  15. ESTROGENS IN MEN:
  16. ANDROGENS IN WOMEN:
  17. LH STIMULATES____________CELLS TO PRODUCE TESTOSTORONE
    LEYDIG
  18. HORMONAL CONTROL OF SPERMATOGENESIS,SPERMIOGENESIS, & SPERMIATION:
  19. TESTOSTORONE EXERTS A _____________FEEDBACK ON GnRH and LH and FSH
    Negative
  20. ANABOLIC STEROIDS:
  21. EXOGENOUS PROGESTERONE:
    Chemical castration
  22. PATH of SPERM:
    • -leave SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES and enter
    • -TUBULI RECTI which join a network of tubules within testes called
    • -RETE TESTIS which enter into
    • -VAS EFFERENTIA which delivers sperm out of testes to
    • -EPIDIDYMUS which secrete substances tjat help sperm survive and mature (stimulated by testostorone)
    • -AMPULLA OF VAS DEFERENS: stores sperm
    • -VAS DEFERENS loops over urinary bladder towards urethra
    • -EJACULATORY DUCT 2cm long leads to
    • -URETHRA which goes through length of penis and leads to external opening
  23. BPH:(BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA)
    manifests with non-cancerous enlargement of gland that occludes the urethra
  24. PROSTATE CANCER:
    • -2nd leading cause of cancer in men in the US
    • -digital exam to palpate prostate nd blood test
    • -reduced by consuminf soybean product foods rich in the red carotenoids lycopene (tomato paste)
    • -Frequent overal activity (intercourse and masturbation) decreased risk of prostate cancer
  25. PENIS:
    penis shaft, glans penis, corona glandis, penile prepus(foreskin)
  26. TUNICA DARTOS:
    -layer of smooth muscle under scrotum skkin that contracts or relaxes in response to temperature so as to maintain a scrotal testis temperature 3.1 degrees celcius below core body temperature.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview